Centrul Diplomatic/Diplomatic Center

Centrul de Studii Politice si Diplomatie/ Center for Political Science and Diplomacy

ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN 2013: GDP, INFLATION, ECONOMIC DATA

Economic forecast: Romanian economy in 2013. GDP, Inflation, Bankruptcy.

Wednesday 30 of January 2013 at the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation headquarters was held the first conference of 2013: The evolution of Romanian economy in 2013. The aggravating crisis!

cersetori

Beggars on the street of Romania: a sign of failed economic policy 

The conference has joined economical experts from Romania and European Union, economical supervisors and personalities of political, economical and academic life of Romania.

2009- 2012 –the first period of crisis.

The conference started with an evaluation of the impact of economic crisis in the last period: 2009-2012.

In 2009 the economic crisis has affected the vital areas of economic life: the collapse has started with construction industry and construction material factories and collapse continued by the real estate market shrinking. Others affected sectors where: insurance, banking and stock exchange and in all the financial sector was strongly shaken down. The consumer confidence has fallen sharply and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has being reduced with 10% in 2010 and 8% in 2011.

The decrease in Romanian economy has being so devastating that now we are below the 2000 level. Unfortunately the economic collapse of 2010-2012 has laid the foundation for a crisis without equivalent in Romanian history that will affect the country in 2013.

Discutii inainte de conferintaProfessor dr. Anton Caragea-Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation chairing the romanian economist`s meeting.

2011-2012: The period of economic earthquake.

2011 and 2012 will be remembered as the worst years of economic turmoil in Romania, had appreciated in one voice all the experts present at the gathering.

First of all the 2011 has being the year in which the Romanian economy had collected all the hard hits from all the economic collapse of the last years. The financial system has being especially hard hit and this had made the fragile Romanian economy to reach the breaking point. The inflation had resurfaced and the experts appreciate that a 10% percent yearly inflation is unavoidable.

The resurgence of inflation had put a dramatic pressure on population economy and had made any recovery unthinkable for the next 4-8 years.

The collapse in economic system, the internal and external investments had being reduced to minimum, the credit on internal market has being practically suspended and all this had provoke for 2012 an economic decrease of more than 15% of GDP or even 18% of GDP after others opinions. A factor not to be neglected in amplification of the crisis is the governmental incompetence that by increasing the taxes, legislative chaos and a deliberate politics of destroying the middle class investors in the favor of big companies all did nothing ells than to aggravate the economic crisis.

2013 – European economic crisis will impact hard on Romania.

The 2013 will be a decisive year to on how will be affected the Romanian economy by the European meltdown.

Until now the Romanian economy was hit hard by his own faults like: reduced productivity and competitiveness, chaos in the governmental policy, crippling inflation etc. In 2013 Romania will be affected by the decay in European economic activity.

Crisis hit Spain, Greece, and Ireland and slowing down economy of Germany, France and Great Britain, will impact negative on Romanian chances to get access to European funds and foreign investments.

Romanian economy and policy maker are not yet conceptual prepared to understand that Romanian EU membership had became a liability and a negative factor in the future of Romania, appreciated the representative of Foreign Export Company Association Mr. Marcel Alexandru.

The negative impact of European Union financial and confidence crisis will account for a 2-5% percent reduction in Romanian GDP this year.

 2013 will be without a doubt a period of a new catastrophic decline. It must be very clear, all economic experts underlined, that the present economic decline will last for at least a decade at European level, so all those opinions that declared that Romania will start a new economic growth before the next 10 years; either don’t know what they are saying, either is bluntly laying.

All the European statistics are speaking about the lost decade of Europe between 2010 and 2020 , term referring to the blocking of economic development at continental level and the frozen of present situation for a decade.

Those that are declaring that Romania will surpass the period of recovering of  France or Great Britain economy , are telling stories that are unbelievable , stated chief economist- Mihail Racaceanu. What is important is to succeed that we have in 2013 a decrease in real economy of less than 10% and in the interval between 2013 and 2018 to stop the decline and in 2020 to come back to pre-crisis level.

homelessin London

Homeless and hungry in Great Britain. How EU crisis will affect Romania ?

2013 budget- a budget of economic decline.

In 2013 the Romanian economy is coming to the fore not only with the negatives trends of the last years and a crippling inflation but also with a budget of austerity that will direct Romania to plunge into a new economic meltdown.

The 2013 budget is the first budget in the eight year period that is not approved prior to 1-th of January, a negative record that is impacting Romanian economic stability and is giving a sign of chaos in the government economic policy.

The budget expected deficit of 2, 4% percent of GDP it not offering any chance for a real economic recovery, massive investment projects are abandoned and the decline in the economy is estimated by independent economist around 8-10% percent of the GDP by the year’s end.

What is dramatic is the reduction in the direct investment in the economy, with less than 8 billion euro investment planned for this year the Romanian economy had to struggle for sustainability. Reduced foreign investment and dramatically shrinking internal private investment means that Romania will have now more that 10 billion euro (in an optimistic assessment) for investment programs. The country needs at least 20 billion per year to modernize the economy and to have a decent growth rate of 1-2% percent per year. He present day budget is not only of severe austerity but of severe contraction stated the economists present at the meeting.

Romanian economy recover postponed to 2050.

This assessment was a strong one, keeping in mind that the pre-crisis governmental statistic declared that in 2025 Romania will succeed in recuperating the gap and reach the level of industrial activity prior to 1989 Revolution.

This perspective is no longer feasible, a new perspective is appearing after the crisis and after the lost decade and a cumulative GDP decrease of more than 60% from 2007 economy level.

This economic recession will be hard to recuperate in the context of zero governmental involvement, the general economic climate of recession and finally the worst factor of all: the burden of external debt.

The resurgence of inflation will put a dramatic pressing on population economy and will make any recovery unthinkable for the next 1-2 years. The collapse in economic system, the internal and external investments will be reduced to minimum, the credit on internal market will be suspended and all this will provoke next year an economic decrease of more than 15% of GDP or even 18% of GDP after others opinions. A factor not to be neglected in amplification of the crisis in the governmental incompetence that by: increasing the taxes, legislative chaos and a deliberate politics of destroying the middle class investor in the favor of big companies all did nothing ells than to aggravate the economic crisis.

External debt risk can plunge Romania into financial meltdown.

The fear factor that will suffocate Romanian economy in the next period will be, after 2015, the foreign debt crisis.

The Emil Boc government has careless accepted more than 36 billion dollars credit and in total the private and state debt of Romania is reaching the unbelievable sum of 95 billion dollars, this only if the government will no longer accept new loans.

In 2012 the Mihai Razvan Ungureanu government succeeded in just a few months to reduce the National bank Reserves by 20 billion euro, an unprecedented squandering of public money in Romanian history.

Despite the writing on the wall, in all of cases like Greece, Spain and Ireland, Romania is accepting new loan from International Monetary Fund, loans that will not be invested in developing and modernizing the economy but in salaries and pensions. This consumer invested loans at extortionate interest rates will suffocate completely an ailing and failed economy as Romanian economy is.

Unemployment: with a rate of registered unemployment of more than 12% of the active population and with another 15% percent of the population already left out of the governmental unemployment aide, Romania tops many EU member countries with a real unemployment figure of more than 25% of the population. This figure must be put in perspective with more that 50% of the population below the poverty line and the full picture of the economic meltdown and social tragedy could be analyzed. Romania economy is in crises and no plans for a future development had not being adopted.

2013: The worsening of economic crisis.

The conclusion of the most important economic experts of Romania was clear: the crisis is not over by far, but has entered in a more difficult faze that will affect financial and banking system and economic fundament`s. The economic crisis will continue until 2017 at the earliest and a coming back cycle that will last until 2025. This decade will be without a doubt the lost decade of Romania but if the necessary measures are not rapidly taken to re-establish control on economic decline than we risk that Romania economy will not come back not even in 2025.

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January 31, 2013 Posted by | Academia de Stiinte Medicale, African affairs, Al Quds, Astana, Bashar Al Assad, Bertrand Russell Tribunal, Blackseanews Agency, Cold War, Communism, Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Coreea, Damascus, Danube Delta, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Emomali Rahmon, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Fidel Castro, Foreign policy, Forumul Ecologistilor din Romania, G20 Summit, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, History, Hugo Chavez, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Informatii despre Coreea, Information on Korea, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Kazahstan, Kazakhstan, Kazakstan, Korea, Latin America, Leaders, Macedonia, Maramures County, Mass media, Medical Tourism, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, Nigeria National Day, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Palestine, Piata imobiliara, Politica externa a Romaniei, Politics, PREMIUL PENTRU VOCATIA COOPERARII INTERNATIONALE, President Bashar Al Assad, Real Eastate, Relatii Internationale, Religion, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Romanian Revolution, Russia, Travel, Turism, Turkmenistan, Uncategorized, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact, United States, Universitati, Universities, Venezuela, War Crimes, WORLD BEST TOURIST DESTINATION AWARD, World Cup, World Social Forum | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

A NATION WAY TO PROSPERITY AND GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE by PROFESSOR DR. ANTON CARAGEA, MA, FINS, EDA

We are living through difficult and boisterous time. A period of rapid changes in world economic and political system, a time of powerful crisis that is shaking the fundaments of national states and of national economies and is putting under strain the social protection and all the values of economic neo-liberalism.

professor dr.Anton Caragea at kazakhstan 2050

In this chaotic period, just a few nations are allowed the luxury of economic and political long time forecast and predictability: China and United States are creating and proposing to their people and foreign partners a long term vision of development and national statehood construction.
In a time of peril and un-certitude, when even a short time economic prediction is considered hazardous, just a few nations are having the will to act as beacons of lights and direction for their region.

In 17th of December 2012 Kazakhstan had enter to this select club of nations, conscientious of their role and position in the continental and world stage by presenting an ambitious, realistic and well carved plan for future of Kazakhstan until 2050.
By the voice of his President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan had created the prototype of a long term, healthy and stable construction model for the country, the region and the world.

Kazakhstan 2030: weathering the storm and creating a nation.

Kazakhstan it is not at the first step in a managed transition towards a stable and democratic society and a powerful economy.
In 1997 Kazakhstan had already carved the landmarks of his astonishing development by the presidential strategy- Kazakhstan 2030.
Far from being just a window dressing, the strategy for 2030 had proved to be a perfect way for charting Kazakhstan after the independence in the incertitude of nation building and construction of a viable economy.
The program had allowed Kazakhstan to tap into national reserves of oil and gas, to gush out of the enclave country status via the reconstructed Silk Road of energy and trade, to create a modern economy, not depending only on energy resources, to build a huge potential of national intelligence and to foster the economy of knowledge, the base for a XXI century reliable economy.

The long string of economic successes was accompanied in the internal sphere by political stability, based on democratic and open society values, the protection of national and religious minorities.
In the area of external policy, Kazakhstan had gather the powerful laurels of a successful reform project carried out during his Presidency of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. An impressive success was also the unprecedented two year chairmanship of Organization of Islamic Conference that transformed Kazakhstan in a leader of dialogue between Islam and Western world.

The latest major diplomatic achievement of Kazakhstan was the proposal of building an area of security and cooperation in Europe and Asia, launched in September 2012, in Astana, at CICA Conference by President Nursultan Nazarbayev. This latest proposal makes Kazakhstan the promoter of an all-inclusive, intercontinental dialogue, that could transform the political landscape of XXI century.
In the end, Kazakhstan 2030 had proved to be not only a successful strategy for Kazakhstan, but also an example for all the countries of the world on how a nation by the sole fact of building himself, can become a regional and world significant player.

The main pillar of Kazakhstan 2050: understanding of XXI century.

In its world acclaimed book: The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, the famous Lawrence of Arabia had mentioned that: the most important, but also decisive part of a plan is to be in line with the necessity of his time.
Kazakhstan 2050 starts by outlining the fundaments of the world in XXI century. A period of change, of accelerating history, of economic, political and ecological challenges, a world completely different from the world of XX century.
Instead of training to force the reality to enter in the realm of possibility, Kazakhstan 2050 is offering a realistic and practical assessment of the necessities of today world and of the available solutions.
Fallowing his long term tradition, Kazakhstan understands that creating a success story and offering solutions to the world is the best way to serve not only his interest, but also to add value to his place in the world.
Kazakhstan 2050: good news for people of Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan had become in the last 20 years an abode of peace, inter-ethnic and inter-religious understanding in a troubled world. One of the explanation is undoubtedly the economic success that made the Kazakhstan not only one of the fastest growing economy in the world, but also a top investor destination in the world economy statistics.

Kazakhstan 2050 is providing the basis for this healthy economy to continue his growth process. Investing in social protection and creating a strong internal demand are key factors for a stable rate of growth. Modernizing the economic potential, investing in new technologies are policy that will insure the world competitiveness of Kazakhstan national economy and the creation of a knowledge based economy are also a profitable long term investment.

The modern economy is based on technological transfer and Kazakhstan is becoming a champion in modernizing the basis of his economy via technology transfer and more important, Kazakhstan educational system mixed with the accent on entrepreneurship in economic development is creating the base for a managerial revolution, that will put Kazakhstan among the top economy`s of the world in term of creativity and intelligence incorporated in economic production.

Extremely interesting it is also the concept of a Kazakhstan patriotism. Instead of playing the card of nationalism or chauvinism, President Nursultan Nazarbayev is calling for the tradition, language and equality to blend into a new and successful Kazakh: a person well educated, wealthy , healthy enjoying the benefits of a modern state and administration and a state of the art medical system.
Kazakhstan is promising to put at the core of his foundation plan for 2050 the individual and his chances to prevail in a complex XXI century.

From Kazakhstan to the world. From world to Kazakhstan.

One of the keys of Kazakhstan national and international success was understanding that Kazakhstan could not evolve alone in the world, but always must stay in touch and be an intricate part of the world evolutions. There are many examples that support this conjecture in Kazakhstan two decades of independence story.

Kazakhstan economic miracle was built on partnership with western companies and oil extraction technology, but also on political negotiation with Russia on Caspian Sea exploration.
The Astana Expo 2017 will also be a proof of the lesson of mutual profit that Kazakhstan is offering to the world. Kazakhstan management of energy, the lessons of ecology and energy for a future, of environment protection, are going to be beneficial for the world economy and for the generations to come. This is just a new illustration of the Kazakhstan concept of successful quest for global significance.
Kazakhstan economic development had transformed the country in a major player in the development of Asia and Europe. Kazakhstan 2050 promises to continue this wise policy: from Kazakhstan to the world, from world to Kazakhstan, creating a synergy that could only beneficial for all the world nations.

Now the lessons of Kazakhstan 2050 are available for everybody: an example of a society of free people building a country for the future, not in isolation or competition, but in harmony with the world nations. In the concert of nations Kazakhstan is ushering in a new tone: a tone of hope.

Professor dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS, Dr.Hc

December 27, 2012 Posted by | Academia de Stiinte Medicale, African affairs, Al Quds, Astana, Bashar Al Assad, Bertrand Russell Tribunal, Blackseanews Agency, Cold War, Communism, Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Coreea, Damascus, Danube Delta, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Emomali Rahmon, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Fidel Castro, Foreign policy, Forumul Ecologistilor din Romania, G20 Summit, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, History, Hugo Chavez, Human Rights Council, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Informatii despre Coreea, Information on Korea, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Kazahstan, Kazakhstan, Kazakstan, Korea, Latin America, Leaders, Macedonia, Maramures County, Mass media, Medical Tourism, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Palestine, Piata imobiliara, Politica externa a Romaniei, Politics, PREMIUL PENTRU VOCATIA COOPERARII INTERNATIONALE, President Bashar Al Assad, Real Eastate, Relatii Internationale, Religion, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Romanian Revolution, Russia, Russian Affairs, Saints life, Siria, Socialism, Syria, Syrian Revolution, Tajikistan, Tourism, Travel, Trinidad and Tobago, Turism, Turism Medical, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact, United States, Universitati, Venezuela, War Crimes, WORLD BEST TOURIST DESTINATION AWARD, World Cup, World Social Forum | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DANUBE AND DANUBE DELTA : A DIPLOMATIC SUCCESS STORY

On 23 June 2011, in the presence of Diplomatic Corp accredited to Romania and Romanian officials, it was unveiled the International Exhibition : DANUBE & DANUBE DELTA, under the High Patronage of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation.

H.E Ambassador of Nigeria Mba Ama Mba welcomed by Professor dr. Anton Caragea and dr. Petru Lificiu

It is the first edition of such an exhibition and as the organizers are stating it hopes to provide real support in erecting a platform to encourage and support fostering new initiatives and partnerships between local and regional authorities , private and state entities , environmental protection foundation in order to further develop the economic power of the Danube region .


Syrian Arab Republic Representative and Dr. Petru Lificiu -ANRE Vice-President and IRICE Director Dr. Anton Caragea

The opening speech of the International Conference : DANUBE AND DANUBE DELTA : OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES was held by Professor Anton Caragea who offered his High Patronage to the event had presented the main objectives of the Conference:  to mark 29 June 2011 as the official International Day of Danube , to emphasize the economic dimension of Danube as the second European rivers , crossing 10 countries , uniting 4 capitals and constructing a water way between North Sea and Black Sea and offering an avenue for more than 100 billions exchanges on goods and services .

Taking in consideration this economic dimension of Danube is absolutely vital for Romania that is receiving 28, 9% percent of the length of the Danube, to transform this in economic opportunity and constructing international partnership not only with riverbanks’ country but with Mediterranean area countries, stated in his opening speech professor dr. Anton Caragea .

Salem Al Jaber, ambassador of State of Qatar, receives a warm welcome . 

Dr. Petru Lificiu, Vice-president of  National Agency for Energy and President of Ecological Forum had presented in his speech the importance of economic development of Danube in the framework of environmental protection and also emphasize the importance of energy and transportation exploitation of Danube shores .

The main focus of the conference was offered by United Arab Emirates and State of Qatar ambassadors’ assessment of the Danube Delta and Danube potential after participating in the diplomatic trip along the Danube.

H.E Ambassador Yacoub Yousef Al Hosani of United Arab Emirates presents the conclusion of his visit in Danube Delta region

H.E Yacoub Yousef Al Hosani – United Arab Emirates Ambassador to Romania focused his speech in assessment of the economical and environmental opportunities of Danube and Danube Delta and the practical dimension of his trip for observing area of interest for investors from United Arab Emirates .

Also Ambassador Yacoub Yousef al Hosani expressed his appreciation towards the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Director Anton Caragea for hosting this trip and for opening the magic gates of a UNESCO heritage site as valuable as Danube Delta and in such a short span of time to organize and an international conference on Danube and Danube Delta.

A huge assistance was present at the Assembly hall . 

H.E Salem al Jaber-  Ambassador of State of Qatar  underlined his complete appreciation toward the observation and insightful analyses of Danube and Danube Delta offered by United Arab Emirates Ambassador stating also that now they are sharing a friendship cemented by waters of Danube , that according to legend make the perfect friendship . Instead his speech will be directed toward concrete proposal such as including Danube Delta among the national flag carrier destination, including Mr. Petru Lificiu`s  book as the travel guide for the area and offering support for state investment in tourism area in Danube region.

H.E Ambassador Salem al Jaber of State of Qatar is presenting his conclusion on Danube Delta with Dr. Petru Lificiu-Ecological forum President and Professor Dr. Anton Caragea-director IRICE

At the end of the conference officials and ambassadors made the honor tour of the  International Exhibition on Danube and Danube Delta admiring the marvelous objects presented in the exhibition and receiving a complementary book of Natural Patrimony of Romania by Mr. Petru Lificiu, book that was honored with Romania Book Award for 2011.

June 29, 2011 Posted by | Blackseanews Agency, Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Danube Delta, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Foreign policy, G20 Summit, History, Human Rights Council, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Leaders, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Piata imobiliara, Politics, Relatii Internationale, Religion, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Romanian Revolution, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact, United States, Universitati, Universities, World Cup | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

CONFERINTA INTERNATIONALA DUNAREA SI DELTA DUNARII: UN SUCCES DIPLOMATIC DE RASUNET

In data de 23 iunie 2011 a avut loc , in prezenta corpului diplomatic acreditat la Bucuresti si a oficialitatilor romane, inaugurarea Conferintei  Internationale Dunarea si Delta, desfasurata sub Inaltul Patronaj al Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica .

E.S Ambasadorul Nigeriei Mba Ama Mba impreuna cu prof.dr.Anton Caragea si dr.Petru Lificiu

Este prima editie a unei manifestari de acest gen si dupa cum declara organizatorii :  isi propune sa devina suportul real in dezvoltarea unei platforme pentru incurajarea si inlesnirea parteneriatelor, atat intre autoritatile locale si regionale, cat si intre autoritati, mediu privat si organisme ne-guvernamentale, prin generarea de proiecte pentru cresterea nivelului economic al macro-regiunii Dunarea.

Reprezentantul R.A. Siriene si dr.Petru Lificu -Vicepresedinte ANRE si Director IRICE Anton Caragea

In deschiderea conferintei, profesor dr. Anton Caragea, ce a asigurat Inaltul Sau Patronaj pentru eveniment, a prezentat principalele elemente ale evenimentului marcand Ziua Internationala a Dunarii, decisa  a fi sarbatorita in data  de 29 iunie a fiecarui an.

Dunarea este al doilea fluviu ca marime al Europei, strabatand 10 tari dezvoltate economic si conectand 4 capitale , legand Marea Neagra de Marea Nordului si transportand anual bunuri si servicii de peste 100 de miliarde de euro .

Ambasadorul Statului Qatar Salem Al Jaber primit cu caldura.

 Avand in vedere aceasta importanta a fluviului este normal ca Romania , pe teritoriul careia curge 28,9% din totalul lungimii fluviului, sa fie interesata de parteneriate internationale cu tarile riverane, dar si cu celelate tari din zona europeana si mediteraniana pentru dezvoltarea acestui potential, a declarat prof.dr.Anton Caragea , Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica.

Ambasadorul Yacoub Yousef Al Hosani din Emiratele Arabe Unite prezinta concluziile vizitei sale in Delta Dunarii

A luat cuvantul apoi Dl. Petru Lificiu , Vicepresedintele Agentiei Nationale de Reglementare a Energiei si Presedinte al Forumului Ecologist care a subliniat importanta energetica a fluviului, necesitatea exploatarii potentialului economic si turistic , dar si necesitatea protectiei patrimoniului natural extraordinar al zonei, in principal arealul Deltei Dunarii .

Centrul de greutate al conferintei a fost bazat pe impresiile de calatorie, transformate profesional in sfaturi si expertiza de catre ambasadorii Qatarului si ai Emiratelor Arabe Unite.

Numarul mare al celor prezenti a facut sala neincapatoare.

 Excelenta Sa Yacoub Yousef al Hosani – Ambasadorul Emiratelor Arabe Unite in Romania a sustinut un larg expozeu, analizand nu doar experienta inedita a calatoriei sale in zona UNESCO a Deltei Dunarii, dar si oportunitatile economice oferite de aceasta zona pentru investitorii din Emiratele Arabe Unite.

Totodata Ambasadorul Yacoub Yousef Al Hosani al Emiratelor Arabe Unite si-a exprimat aprecierea fata de Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica si profesorul Anton Caragea pentru organizarea unei calatorii in aceasta zona mirifica , inclusa de UNESCO pe lista monumentelor naturale universale si apoi pentru organizarea acestei conferinte internationale de enorma importanta pentru dezvoltarea Dunarii .

Ambasadorul Statului Qatar Salem Al Jaber isi prezinta opiniile despre Dunare

Excelenta Sa  Salem Al Jaber-Ambasadorul Statului Qatar in Romania si-a exprimat deplinul acord cu analiza economica si sociala a ariei Dunarii realizata de ambasadorul Emiratelor Arabe Unite , declarand ca de acum au o prietenie cimentata de Dunare , cea mai rezistanta dupa legendele locului.

In schimb E.S. Salem Al Jaber a preferat sa faca aprecieri punctuale si concrete, precum propunerea de a include Delta Dunarii in programele turistice oferite de liniile aeriene qatareze, promisiunea de a include cartea domnului Petru Lificiu drept ghid oficial al regiunii la bordul avioanelor Qatarului si sprijinul sau pentru realizarea de investitii de stat in turismul din zona.

La finele conferintei ambasadorii si oficialii prezenti au vizitat Targul International al Dunarii si Deltei Dunarii, admirand minunatele exponate stranse acolo si primind un exemplar de onoare al lucrarii dl. Petru Lificiu : Patrimoniul natural al Romaniei, lucrare premiata cu Premiul de Carte al Romaniei pentru anul 2011.

June 29, 2011 Posted by | Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Danube Delta, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Foreign policy, History, Human Rights Council, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Leaders, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, Piata imobiliara, Politics, Relatii Internationale, Religion, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Saints life, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact, Universitati, Universities, Viticola Corcova | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

DUNAREA SI DELTA DUNARII PREZENTATE LA TARGUL INTERNATIONAL DE LA ROMEXPO

Intre 23 si 26 iunie 2011 Complexul Expozitional Rompexpo din Bucuresti va gazdui Expozitia Internationala Dunarea si Delta .

Este prima editie a unei manifestari de acest gen si dupa cum declara organizatorii :  isi propune sa devina suportul real in dezvoltarea unei platforme pentru incurajarea si inlesnirea parteneriatelor, atat intre autoritatile locale si regionale, cat si intre autoritati, mediu privat si organisme ne-guvernamentale, prin generarea de proiecte pentru cresterea nivelului economic al macro-regiunii Dunarea.

Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica va asigura Inaltul sau Patronaj pentru CONFERINTA INTERNATIONALA : DUNAREA SI DELTA DUNARII : PERSPECTIVE SI PROVOCARI ce va avea loc in data de 23 iunie orele 15 :00 in pavilionul C1.

In cadrul acestei conferinte vor lua cuvantul personalitati importante ale vietii publice romanesti si internationale printre care enumeram : prof.dr. Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, dr. Petru Lificiu , Vice-Presedintele ANRE si presedinte al Forumului Ecologist , prof.dr. Mircea Dutu, Presedintele Universitatii Ecologice. Intre oaspetii internationali se evidentiaza Excelenta Sa Yacoub Yousef al Hosani – Ambasadorul Emiratelor Arabe Unite in Romania si Salem Al Jaber-Ambasadorul Statului Qatar in Romania.

 

La aceasta importanta manifestare in beneficiul Deltei sunt invitati sa participe si expozanti : autoritatile, institutiile publice locale si regionale implicate in implementarea, coordonarea si aplicabilitatea programelor de cooperare regionala in toate domeniile prioritare indentificate in Strategia Dunarii: transport, energie, turism, protectia mediului, dezvoltare rurala, tehnologii informationale si de comunicatii, cultura, educatie si cercetare, dar si reprezentanti ai comunitatii de afaceri si ai mediului neguvernamental ne-a declarat D-na Diana Popa managerul de proiect al Expozitiei .

June 16, 2011 Posted by | Blackseanews Agency, Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Diplomatie, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, Orient, Oriental Art, Piata imobiliara, Politics, Relatii Internationale, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Tourism, Travel, Turism, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact, Universitati | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

ROMANIA WILL HOST THE MAGIC OF ORIENTAL ART EXHIBITION

In the month of June 2011 Romania will host for the second consecutive year  the prestigious Oriental Art Exhibition in Bucharest with the support of  Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania . The exhibition will stay in Bucharest for seven days offering to the public the opportunity of getting aquatinted with the magic of the east.

 

This year the exhibition will be held under the title : MAGIC OF ORIENTAL ART  COMES TO BUCHAREST  and organizers are ambitioning for an even grandiose event  than last year.

The Oriental Exhibition is dedicated in offering a firsthand impression to the viewers of how life in the orient society really is.

The aim of the Oriental Art  Exhibition is to create an oriental environment in which the visitor could understand how an oriental house is build, what are the ornaments and the practical furniture used, how is made possible the presence of sacred space and tradition in the normal environment of life and working. 

In a way the Oriental exhibition is offering a practical gate for curious and visitors and even experts alike in better understanding how life, climate, food , education and religion are forging the everyday life of the people of the east.

The organizers of the exhibition have told us that the main agenda of the Exhibition is to offer a bridge between oriental culture and understanding of life and European concept of living and understanding housing .

This year , for a second year in a row the prestigious Oriental Art  Exhibition comes to Romania at the invitation of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and professor Anton Caragea supervision  under the attractive title: THE MAGIC OF ORIENTAL ART  COMES TO BUCHAREST.

The prestigious exhibition is regarded in all of Europe as an important way for countries from the Orient to present their tradition, there culinary expertise, their art and to open to the viewers of the exhibition a gate for their world.

As usually the most prestigious and important embassy accredited to Bucharest will be invited to take part in the show and to present their spectacular tradition to Romanian public and to fulfill their role of ambassadors of culture and tradition.

Professor Anton Caragea declared to the press that bringing the Magic of Oriental Art  to Bucharest for a second year is a great achievement and it constitute one of the most important cultural events of the diplomatic life and the agreement of the organizer to dispatch the precious collection of the ORIENTAL ART  EXHIBITION to Romania proves that Romania is an important and vibrant country open to foreign cultures and experiences .

Professor Anton Caragea , director of IRICE, awarding the title of official partner for EXOTIQUE Brand owner in June 2010  at last year event.

May 24, 2011 Posted by | African affairs, Blackseanews Agency, Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Damascus, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Foreign policy, History, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Leaders, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, Palestine, Politics, President Bashar Al Assad, Relatii Internationale, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Romanian Revolution, Siria, Syria, Syrian Revolution, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

ROMANIA GAZDUIESTE PENTRU AL DOILEA AN CONSECUTIV EXPOZITIA DE ARTA ORIENTALA

Luna iunie 2011 va rămâne sub semnul unei deosebite împliniri culturale prin derularea Expoziţiei MAGIA ORIENTULUI VINE LA BUCUREŞTI . Expozitia este organizata de Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica pentru al doilea an consecutiv.

Expozitia va ramane pentru sapte zile la Bucuresti oferind publicului posibilitatea de a se familiariza cu Magia Artei Orientale.

Expoziţia de artă orientală este, potrivit organizatorilor,  dedicată reconstituirii unor fragmente de viaţă orientală .

Principalul scop al Expoziţiei MAGIA ARTEI  ORIENTALE  VINE LA BUCUREŞTI este de a recrea in capitala României mediul tipic oriental, în care vizitatorul poate înţelege cum este construită o casă orientală , care sunt ornamentele, mobilierul şi toate micile plăceri ale vieţii fără de care Orientul nu poate fi înţeles.

Totodată expoziţia va revela prezenţa specific orientală a sacrului şi a tradiţiei în în perimetrul cotidian al vieţii si al muncii.

Intr-un fel Expoziţia de Artă Orientală va oferi o adevărată poartă pentru vizitatori, curioşi şi experţi deopotrivă spre a intra într-o lume fascinantă prin care vor putea înţelege cum factori precum clima, hrana, educaţia şi religia alcătuiesc viaţa de fiecare zi a lumii orientale.

Organizatorii expoziţiei ne-au declarat ca principalul obiectiv al expoziţiei este de a fi o punte către cultura orientală şi pentru înţelegerea conceptului de viaţă şi casă orientală de către europeni.

În acest an , după deosebite eforturi Expoziţia de Artă Orientală vine în România la invitaţia Institutului de Relaţii Internaţionale şi Cooperare Economică pentru al doilea an consecutiv  sub titlul atractiv: MAGIA ARTEI ORIENTALE  VINE ÎN BUCURESTI .

 Prestigioasa expoziţie este privită în întreaga Europă ca un important mijloc prin care ţările din Orient îşi pot prezenta tradiţiile, experienţa şi magia culinară şi totodată comorile de artă ce se transformă în faţa vizitatorilor într-o poartă spre întreaga lume.

Ca întotdeauna cele mai prestigioase şi importante ambasade acreditate la Bucureşti vor fi invitate să i-a parte la acest spectacol de tradiţie şi artă spre a-şi putea prezenta tradiţiile şi arta în faţa publicului din România îndeplinindu-şi astfel îndatorirea de ambasadori ai culturii şi tradiţiei.

 Profesorul Anton Caragea, directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica ne- a declarat ca aducerea în România a Expoziţiei de Artă Orientală pentru al doilea an consecutiv este unul din cele mai importante evenimente culturale ale vieţii diplomatice şi acordul organizatorilor de a-şi trimite preţioasele colecţii ale expoziţiei MAGIA ORIENTULUI VINE ÎN BUCURESTI este o dovadă că România este o ţară importantă şi deschisă către experienţele şi civilizaţiile orientale. 

Profesor dr. Anton Caragea,director IRICE, ofera titlul de partener oficial proprietarului brandului EXOTIQUE in cadrul expozitiei de anul trecut 

May 24, 2011 Posted by | African affairs, Al Quds, Bashar Al Assad, Bertrand Russell Tribunal, Blackseanews Agency, Comunitatea Musulmana din Romania, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Damascus, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Fidel Castro, Foreign policy, Human Rights Council, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Informatii despre Coreea, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Leaders, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, Nigeria National Day, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Palestine, Politics, President Bashar Al Assad, Real Eastate, Relatii Internationale, Religion, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Romanian Revolution, Russian Affairs, Siria, Syria, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, Viticola Corcova | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

PETRU LIFICIU THE LAUREATE OF ROMANIAN BOOK AWARD FOR 2011

The academic council of Institute of International relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania decided to confer the prestigious ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD FOR 2011 to Mr. Petru Lificiu book NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA.

The book was selected for this prestigious prize as it is the first work that is creating a complete and extensive inventory on the wealth on national Romanian patrimony. The work is well organized and structured in order to offer to specialist and non-specialist alike a working instrument full with details and information’s necessary to create a national strategy for environmental protection. The information’s are extremely useful and scientific certified on : natural protected area, natural parks, biosphere reservation, humid areas of national importance, sites of natural universal patrimony , natural geology and paleontology reservation, protected area and tourism.

A plus of the work is the english language edition that is grating to international public direct access to high quality information’s regarding the extent and importance of natural Romanian patrimony. The english edition of NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA by Petru Lificiu is a novelty on national stage and is achieving a mission of special importance : creating a massive knowledge in the all world  regarding the extraordinary natural potential of Romania and supporting the acknowledgment of Romania as a exceptional value touristic destination on Europe`s map.

Another argument in favor of awarding the famous prize is the printing of the book in exceptional graphic conditions, accompanied by a few dozen of exceptional quality photos that are by itself true ambassadors of the beauties of our country in front of all the readers.

On 14 of April 2011 in a public ceremony on behalf of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania prof.dr. Anton Caragea will offer, accompanied by three ambassadors accredited to Bucharest, the prestigious (ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD to Mr. Petru Lificiu, the author of NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA.   The author, Petru Lificiu , former minister of environment and in present day Vice-President of ANRE ( National Agency for Energy ) is a well known political and cultural Romanian personality and specially known for his ecological  campaign and as a partisan of environmental protection in Romania.

On this occasion we congratulate the Ecological Forum of Romania that supported the publication of this volume, for the important contribution to raise national and international awareness of the natural patrimony values that are to be found in Romania. The information’s from NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA book are offering the distinct possibility to create a national strategy of environment protection and tourism exploitation of this patrimony elements and are creating an exceptional editorial creation that is receiving the normal  appreciation by ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD.

March 23, 2011 Posted by | Blackseanews Agency, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, Foreign policy, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Leaders, News, Piata imobiliara, Politics, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, Universitati, Universities, Viticola Corcova | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

PETRU LIFICIU-AUTORUL CELEI MAI BUNE CARTI DIN 2011

Consiliul academic al Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica a decis sa ofere, pentru anul 2011, prestigiosul titlul PREMIUL DE CARTE AL ROMANIEI ( ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD ) lucrarii PATRIMONIUL NATURAL AL ROMANIEI realizata de dl. Petru Lificiu . Lucrarea s-a impus pentru acest prestigios titlu deoarece este prima lucrare ce realizeaza un inventar complet si exhaustiv al bogatiei patrimoniului national romanesc . Lucrarea bine organizata si inchegata, ofera specialistilor si nespecialistilor un instrument de lucru plin de informatii si detalii necesare in alcatuirea unei strategii nationale de protejare a mediului. Informatiile extrem de utile si certificate stiintific cuprind :ariile naturale protejate , parcurile naturale , rezervatiile biosferei , zonele umede de importanta nationala, siturile patrimoniului natural universal , rezervatiile naturale geologice si paleontologice , rezervatii speologice si ariile protejate si turismul.

In plus traducerea lucrarii in limba engleza ofera publicului international acces direct la informatii de calitate cu privire la extinderea si importanta patrimoniului natural al Romaniei .  Aparitia in limba engleza a lucrarii  PATRIMONIUL NATURAL AL ROMANIEI de Petru Lificiu este astfel o premiera  pe plan national, realizand o misiune de o importanta  deosebita: popularizarea potentialului extraordinar al Romaniei in intreaga lume si sprijinirea inscrierii Romaniei ca destinatie turistica de exceptionala valoare pe harta Europei.

Un alt argument in favoarea acordarii celebrului premiu este tiparirea lucrarii in conditii grafice exceptionale acompaniata de cateva zeci de fotografii de o calitate ireprosabila care se constituie in ambasadori ai frumusetilor tarii noastre inaintea celor ce deschid lucrarea.

In data de 14 aprilie 2011 intr-o ceremonie publica,  in numele conducerii Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica prof.dr.Anton Caragea va inmana, acompaniat de trei ambasadori acreditati la Bucuresti , prestigiosul PREMIUL DE CARTE AL ROMANIEI ( ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD ) domnului Petru Lificiu,  autorul  lucrarii PATRIMONIUL NATURAL AL ROMANIEI.

Autorul, Petru Lificiu , fost ministru al mediului si actualmente Vice-Presedinte al Agentiei Nationale de Reglementarea in Domeniul Energiei ( ANRE ) este o cunoscuta personalitate politica si culturala si mai ales un cunoscut ecologist si partizan al protectiei mediului din Romania.

Cu aceasta ocazie adresam felicitari Forumului Ecologistilor din Romania, sub egida caruia a avut loc publicarea acestui valoros volum, pentru contributia importanta la constientizarea interna si internationala a valorilor de patrimoniu natural care se gasesc in Romania. Informatiile din lucrarea PATRIMONIUL NATURAL AL ROMANIEI  ofera posibilitatea constituirii unei strategii nationale de protectie a mediului si de exploatare turistica a acestor valoroase elemente de patrimoniu  constituind o realizare editoriala de exceptie care isi gaseste aprecierea cuvenita .

March 22, 2011 Posted by | Blackseanews Agency, Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Environment, Foreign policy, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Piata imobiliara, Politics, Real Eastate, Romanian economy, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, Universitati, Viticola Corcova | , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

DIPLOMATS ARE DISCOVERING THE MIRACLE LAND OF MARAMURES

Between 17 and 21 March 2011 the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania had hosted the annual event called diplomatic spring trip, destined to offer to ambassadors accredited to Romania the opportunity to discover the beauties of our country but also to allow them to have a better knowledge of the business and investment opportunity presents in different part of our country.

This year at the request and invitation of the famous Romanian political leader Vasile Vlasin –director of Transylvania Regional Development Agency- the diplomatic trip was directed towards discovering Maramures- a region world famous for her beauty but also remote location.

Professor Anton Caragea, director of Institute of International relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania has announced that due to budget constraints this year the trip will be open for ambassadors that had already build a long standing relationship with the Institute and are interested in promoting economic ties between their countries and the visited region.

The program for the trip was extremely well tailored including an extensive exploration of local political and economic environment with official visits to Prefect of the Maramures County, to main Mayors Office in the region and with top business community leaders and a lot of meet the press opportunity on the long trip in Maramures. Cities as Baia Mare, Sighet of Marmatia and Borsa were honored to host the Discover Maramures Program for diplomats and offered warm greeting the ambassador’s convoy.

The economic part of the program was hailed as a success the ambassadors represented in the delegation expressing special interest for residual water  plants manufactures in the region, furniture factory and investments in land and tourism facilities in Maramures . It was taken the decision to direct all this request and future investment opportunities by the Transylvania Regional Development Agency that will insure the right environment to establish contacts and to explore regional investment opportunities .

The diplomat’s agenda on the tour of beautiful Maramures was not only confined to political and economic meetings. Also visits to all UNESCO world heritage sites in Maramures where included in the program. As a special favor to the ambassadors the group was hosted at the UNESCO protected Monastery of Barsana, in the building that hosted Prince Charles of Great Britain during his trip in the region and they were welcomed in the famous museum of the monastery. The visit was also seasoned with unforgettable moments as a breakfast at 2.000 meters altitude and a bird eye view of Suior valley by a sky – gondola and a hike on a sky-jet where ambassadors could prove their driving abilities and also taking part in special folk dances.

The trip was a success in combining useful meetings and pleasant times in the final press conference the ambassadors present in the trip express their gratitude for the rare opportunity to discover a region so beautiful and rich in landscape and scenic spots.   Professor Anton Caragea, director of   Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania expressed his determination to bring as soon as possible new delegations in the area in order to further support the regional development and to develop in the area.

A relaxation moment for ambassadors . Blending with the locals

Barsana Monastery – UNESCO World heritage Monument. Ambassadors where hosted in the palace also used by Prince Charles during his stay in Maramures

Mineralogy Museum in Baia Mare . The ambassador of United Arab Emirates looking at precious gems  .

Happy Cemetery from Sapanta . UNESCO world heritage list and a most stop in Maramures visit

The folk music assembly Maramures is singhing a HAPPY BIRTHDAY TO YOU for IRICE Director Professor Anton Caragea

The House of Iarca Music Assembly has conquered the hearts and minds of ambassadors

Cutting the cake in honor of Prof.Anton Caragea birthday

A moment of relaxation in a dense visit.

March 22, 2011 Posted by | Corcova Roy&Damboviceanu, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, History, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Leaders, Maramures County, Mass media, News, Piata imobiliara, Politics, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Socialism, Tourism, Travel, UNESCO Heritage List, Universities | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment