Centrul Diplomatic/Diplomatic Center

Centrul de Studii Politice si Diplomatie/ Center for Political Science and Diplomacy

ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COOPERATION: AN EXAMPLE OF SUCCESS

On 20th February 2013, under the auspices of Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, the bilateral meeting between Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev and Romanian President of Chamber of Deputies Mr. Valeriu Zgonea had taken place.

The President of Chamber of Deputies Mr. Valeriu Zgonea had outlined his support for the continuing development of bilateral relation between Romania and Kazakhstan and expresses his openness to enlarge the bilateral cooperation on parliamentary level and declared that in the spirit of the strategic partnership between the two countries, the first ambassador received in 2013 is the Kazakhstan ambassador.

VALERIU ZGONEA

Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev, Romanian President of Chamber of Deputies Mr. Valeriu Zgonea and Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation.

H.E. Talgat Kaliyev had briefly presented the evolution of bilateral relation in the last year, had underlined the excellent political relations and economic partnership between the two countries and presented a calendar of diplomatic and political visits for this year.

Also at the meeting where tabled details of the visit of President of Chamber of Deputies Mr. Valeriu Zgonea to Kazakhstan, scheduled for May 2013, a visit that will help solidified the parliamentary level of the strategic relations between Romania and Kazakhstan.

 The President of Chamber of Deputies Mr. Valeriu Zgonea had underlined the necessity for Romania to stay true to the national interest of holding the strategic partnership with Kazakhstan. In this amicable atmosphere was approached  the issue of  bilateral economic cooperation in the framework of   Romania-Kazakhstan  Business Council  and a series of concrete projects designed to develop the bilateral relation in the next period.

During the meeting Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev was officially congratulated for the appointment of Vice Prime Minister of Romanian Government, General Gabriel Oprea as President of Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group, a historical significance gesture, had stated the   Romanian President of Chamber of Deputies.

Romania will always be faithful to the strategic partnership with Kazakhstan, the most important diplomatic partnership of our country and 2013 it is a crucial year in the development of this relation said concluding the meeting Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation.

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February 26, 2013 Posted by | Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Foreign policy, History, Human Rights Council, Information on Korea, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Kazahstan, Kazakhstan, Leaders, Mass media, News, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Open Letter, Orient, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Politica externa a Romaniei, Politics, Real Eastate, Relatii Internationale, Romanian economy, Romanian Foreign Policy, Tourism, Travel, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, United Nations Global Compact, Universities | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

COOPERAREA INTER-PARLAMENTARA DINTRE ROMANIA SI KAZAHSTAN – UN EXEMPLU DE SUCCES

In data de 20 februarie 2013, in organizarea  prof.dr.Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, a avut loc intalnirea intre Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev si Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor Dl.Valeriu Zgonea.

Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor, Valeriu Zgonea si-a exprimat sustinerea pentru dezvoltarea continua a relatiilor intre Romania si Kazahstan si si-a exprimat disponibilitatea pentru largirea cooperarii la nivel parlamentar si a aratat ca in spiritul parteneriatului strategic dintre cele doua tari, primul ambasador cu care incepe seria intalnirilor diplomatice este ambasadorul Kazahstanului.

VALERIU ZGONEA

Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev, Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor Dl.Valeriu Zgonea si Profesor dr.Anton Caragea-Director IRICE

Excelenta sa, Talgat Kaliyev, a prezentat stadiul relatiei bilaterale, excelentele relatii politice si parteneriatul economic dintre cele doua tari si a prezentat calendarul schimburilor diplomatice si al vizitelor planificate pentru acest an.

Totodata au fost discutate elemente ale vizitei pe care Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor Dl.Valeriu Zgonea o va efectua in Kazahstan, in luna mai 2013, vizita ce va cimenta relatiile bilaterale la nivel parlamentar.

Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor, Valeriu Zgonea, a observat ca Romania trebuie sa depuna si va depune in continuare toate eforturile necesare pentru dezvoltarea relatiei strategice Romania –Kazahstan  si pentru dezvoltarea cooperarii economice intre cele doua tari, in cadrul Consiliului de Afaceri Romania-Kazahstan si a discutat apoi proiecte concrete de dezvoltare a relatiei bilaterale in perioada urmatoare.

Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev, a fost felicitat pentru numirea ca Presedinte al Grupului Parlamentar Romania-Kazahstan a Vice Primului Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei- General Gabriel Oprea, un fapt de importanta istorica, a apreciat Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor Dl. Valeriu Zgonea.

Romania va fi intotdeauna credincioasa parteneriatului strategic cu Kazahstanul, cel mai important partener diplomatic al tarii noastre, iar anul 2013 este un an important in dezvoltarea acestei relatii, a concluzionat la sfarsitul intalnirii  prof.dr.Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica.

February 26, 2013 Posted by | Academia de Stiinte Medicale, African affairs, Al Quds, Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Danube Delta, Diplomacy, Diplomatie, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Foreign policy, History, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Islam, Kazahstan, Kazakhstan, Leaders, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, News, Orient, Politica externa a Romaniei, Politics, PREMIUL PENTRU VOCATIA COOPERARII INTERNATIONALE, Relatii Internationale | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

A HISTORIC DECISION: THE VICE PRIME-MINISTER OF ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT NOMINATED AS PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN PARLIAMENTARY FRIENDSHIP GROUP

On February 14, 2013  was concluded the process of selecting and appointing the members of bilateral parliamentary friendship groups between Romania and other countries.

The Parliamentary Friendship Groups are instrumental for developing strong political and parliamentary relations between Romania and his different partners in the world.

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation  has taken charge of selecting special members of   parliamentary friendship groups for the countries that are having a special significance for Romania foreign policy.

Among the countries with strategic significance for Romania is Kazakhstan and on 14 February 2013 at the Victoria Government Palace, the official appointing of the President of Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group   has taken place.

A.Caragea-G.Oprea-Talgat Kaliyev

Professor dr.Anton Caragea IRICE director , General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romania and H.E. Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev ( from left to right)

The President of Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group   was elected General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romania Government, a strategic decision as never in the history of Romania a Vice Prime-Minister has taken this role.

This appointment is a prof of the magnitude and strategic significance of the bilateral relations between Romania and Kazakhstan, had stated during the ceremony Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation.

 General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romania Government had stated that his appointment at the head of the Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group    has the agreement of  Prime Minister of Romania and is destined to offer to international community a signal that Kazakhstan is today the most important political and diplomatic partner of Romania.

It is a singular fact in history of Romania that a Vice Prime Minister is taking charge of developing the bilateral relation with one country, but this is also a signal that Romania-Kazakhstan relation is a unique and special relation, concluded   General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romanian Government.

H.E. Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev had presented his congratulation to the new President of Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group – General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romania.

Gabriel Oprea

Romania-Kazakhstan: a unique relation ,declares Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev and General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romania

Kazakhstan leadership fully understands the significance and the importance of the step taken by Romania in the direction of elevating the relation with Kazakhstan toward a unique significance declared Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev.

In this amicable atmosphere, Vice Prime Minister of Romanian Government  and Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs to Romania discussed the issues of  bilateral economic cooperation in the framework of   Romania-Kazakhstan  Business Council  and a series of concrete projects designed to develop the bilateral relation in the next period.

The ceremony has concluded with the statement of President of Romania-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group – General Gabriel Oprea-Vice Prime Minister of Romania that Romania will have to stay true to the national interest of constructing a strategic partnership with Kazakhstan.

February 26, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

O DECIZIE ISTORICA: VICE PRIM-MINISTRUL ROMANIEI DEVINE PRESEDINTELE GRUPULUI PARLAMENTAR ROMANIA-KAZAHSTAN

In data de 14 Februarie 2013, a fost finalizat procesul de selectare si numire a membrilor grupurilor parlamentare de prietenie dintre Romania si alte state.

Grupurile Parlamentare de Prietenie  sunt extreme de importante in construirea de relatii politice si parlamentare puternice intre Romania si celelalte state.

Profesor dr.Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, a preluat organizarea acestor grupuri pentru tarile ce au o semnificatie politica si strategica speciala pentru Romania.

Intre statele ce au o importanta strategica pentru Romania este Kazahstanul si in data de 14 februarie 2013, la Palatul Victoria al Guvernului Romaniei, a avut loc numirea oficiala a Presedintelui Grupului Parlamentar de Prietenie Romania-Kazahstan.

A.Caragea-G.Oprea-Talgat Kaliyev

Prof.dr.Anton Caragea, Director IRICE , Vice Prim Ministrul Romaniei G-ral Gabriel Oprea si Insarcinatul cu afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania: Talgat Kaliyev ( de la stanga la dreapta)

Presedintele  Grupului Parlamentar de Prietenie Romania-Kazahstan a fost numit Generalul Gabriel Oprea- Vice Prim Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei, o decizie de semnificatie istorica, deoarece niciodata in istoria Romaniei, un vice-prim ministru nu a preluat un astfel de rol.

Numirea este o dovada a  importantei si dimensiunii strategice  pe care a capatat-o relatia Romania-Kazahstan,  a declarat in deschiderea ceremoniei Profesor dr.Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica.

Generalul Gabriel Oprea- Vice Prim-Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei, a declarat ca numirea sa in calitate de Presedinte al Grupului Parlamentar de Prietenie Romania-Kazahstan are acordul Primului Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei si este o masura destinata a arata intregii comunitati internationale statutul singular al relatiei Romania-Kazahstan, relatie unica pentru Romania, caci azi Kazahstanul este cel mai important partener politic si economic al Romaniei.

Este un fapt unic in istoria Romaniei ca un Vice Prim Ministru sa preia responsabilitatea dezvoltarii relatiei cu o singura tara, dar este si un semnal ca relatia Romania-Kazahstan este o relatie unica si speciala, a concluzionat Generalul Gabriel Oprea- Vice Prim Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei.

Excelenta sa, Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev si-a prezentat felicitarile sale pentru noul Presedinte al  Grupului Parlamentar de Prietenie Romania-Kazahstan, Generalul Gabriel Oprea- Vice Prim Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei.

Gabriel Oprea

Vice Prim-Ministrul Romaniei G-ral Gabriel Oprea si Insarcinatul cu afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kalieyv: relatia Romania-Kazahstan este o relatie unica

 

Conducerea Kazahstanului intelege semnificatia si importanta acestui pas luat de Romania, in directia consolidarii relatiei cu Kazahstanul, a declarat Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev.

In aceasta atmosfera amicala, Vice Prim Ministrul Guvernului Romaniei si Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului au discutat problemele relatiei bilaterale si au discutat si dimensiunea economica a relatiei dintre cele doua state in cadrul Consiliului de Afaceri Romania-Kazahstan si au discutat despre proiectele concrete destinate sa intareasca relatia bilaterala in urmatoarea perioada.

Ceremonia s-a finalizat cu declaratia Presedintelui  Grupului Parlamentar de Prietenie Romania-Kazahstan, Generalul Gabriel Oprea- Vice Prim-Ministru al Guvernului Romaniei, ce a apreciat ca : este interesul national al Romaniei ca parteneriatul strategic cu Kazahstanul sa continue a fi dezvoltat in viitor.

February 26, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

FUTURE OF DIPLOMACY IN XXI CENTURY

On 13th November 2012 Romania had hosted the Conference on Peace and Security in Europe and Asia, an impressive gathering of Europe`s most important political brains, destined to express the support for Platform for Peace and Security in Europe and Asia.

The Platform is a designed model of cooperation and peace created by the lofty President of Kazakhstan-Nursultan Nazarbayev.

The Platform for Peace and Security is an intellectual replay to the challenges of XXI century: war, criminality, terrorism, inter-ethnic conflicts, inter-state wars, collapse of international organizations such as United Nations and his affiliated agencies etc.

CARAGEA ANTON VORBIND DESPRE KAZAHSTAN 2050web

All this conceptual and reality`s defiance are becoming part of the security concerns of XXI century.

No state and no individual are immune to this general collapse of authority and legality, that is fringes the collapse of organized society.

The only solution for a reconstruction of world and for solving the humanity problems is to restart the National State concept.

A National State that will be, undoubtedly, different from his XIX century prototype. The fights for respect of human rights and for managing globalization trends must be implicated in the reconstruction of state authority.

Without the state authority reconstructed and put at the heart of international law and norms, no global issue can be resolved.

The re-construction of XXI century national state is the conceptual center of the Platform for Peace and Security.

The Platform for Peace and Security is solving the evils of the globalization such as: terrorism, drug trafficking, crime and globalized crime only by concentrating on the reconstruction of a modern, sophisticated and up to date national state.

This approach is truly revolutionary, as in the last two decades the international efforts, that could have being put to a much better use, where dedicated to dissolve and tragically destroy the national state authority.

All this effort of destroying and portraying as outdated and even criminal the national state, had as only result the dissolution of state authority, the dramatic rise of international criminality, a policy of international involvement in the internal affairs of the sovereign countries and the destruction of private property and the terrible crimes against human rights, that the last century had ever witness.

Reconstructing national statehood is an intricate part of re-establishing the global equilibrium.

Globalization is a dangerous trend that, without being proper managed, could distort and destroy people’s lives and the only possible coordinator for a better understanding and use of globalization is the national state.

Instead of perceiving the national state as an obstacle against globalization, the forces of globalization will do better to understand that only the national state is the proper provider of globalization and if the current trends of opposing globalization and national state are allowed to continue, the nation state will be trimmed and destroyed and globalization will become a totally negative trend.

None of the current global problems of the mankind can be properly addressed in the absence of a strong a pertinent national state.

The spread of mass destruction weapons and the terrorism is only the result of nation state weakness.

No mass destruction weapons could ever be transferred to private groups, as long as a state is functioning and running.

Only when the former Soviet Union collapsed, the matter of mass destruction weapons was tabled as an emergency. Only after Afghanistan state was destroyed by the internal convulsion, the terrorist movement obtained a save heaven and created the base for terrorism to attack.

At the beginning of 2000, the North Africa, composed of  shamble states, with long desert border, such as: Mauritania, Niger, Mali, Algeria etc. become the center for new terrorist activity.

The lessons of the last two decades are showing clearly that: only by offering support to national state to overcome the globalization related weakness, can insure that the flow of terrorism and destruction weapons can be stopped.

 

Nation`s rights are human rights.

With the end of Cold War a new concept had flourished, the concept that human rights are to be imposed against national rights. The theory it was that: the only legitimate way to assert human rights is to destroy national state rights.

This wrong policy had created the nightmare of Kosovo, where in order to promote individual and minority rights a global intervention had destroyed Serbia, had killed 100.000 peoples and had created more than 1 million refugees.

The final result was the creation of an illegitimate state, the creation of a vacuum and tension area in the center of the Balkans.

What have even aggravated the aggression against national rights, was the unlawful use of the humanitarian intervention concept to destroy nation state, to aggravate crisis, to persecute democratic movements and to install a general atmosphere of distrust and insecurity at world d level.

As the Platform for Peace and Security had stated:  By this, basic human rights and freedom are jeopardized, ignored or directly violated under the slogan of defending the very rights and freedoms.

Human rights are nation rights – this must be the key concept of insuring a peaceful world and preventing the masquerade of so called human rights protection by war to be used as pretence for foreign intervention and bluntly aggressions.

Anton caragea-Emirate-kazakhstan

Security by cooperation.

The last two decades after the Cold War where based on the concept of uni-polar world, destruction of nation state , the blunt disregard for human rights and the forced cooperation by so called coalition of the willing, such us in Iraq intervention in 2003.

The only reasonable and practical way of creating a cooperation system in Europe and Asia could be based only on cooperation models and the most successful one is that of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in 2010, under Kazakhstan Presidency.

Kazakhstan can play an instrumental role by the Platform for Peace and Security in uniting Europe and Asia by his tremendous capacity of building bridges.

Also, the concept of building not only a state to state cooperation movement but also a state to multilateral  organization is a truly remarkable idea, that could by itself created a momentum for unification and cooperation based not only on destruction of  nation state but on his reconstruction.

The quest for peace is in XXI century as actual and necessary as it was in the last hundred years.

After the Second World War an array of international organization spring up, especially in Europe, a traumatized   continent after the destructions suffered in two world wars.

In the Helsinki Agreement run off, countries lead by Romania had created a special Conference on Security and Cooperation, in order to offer a possibility to act and re-act to international provocation, borders, conflicts, disarmament and human rights issues.

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe had soon proved to be a very concrete arena for international dialogue, fostering security in Europe, avoiding Cold War to become a hot war in Europe.

This long track of success created the potential to be developed at the end of Cold War in Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

In 1990 the Paris Conference that settled the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe as the main framework for dialogue in the larger Europe area had an instrumental role in creating peace in our continent.

After 1990 until 1999 the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe can be used as an example for his activity. Solving the security problems in Europe after the dissolving of Warsaw Treaty, insuring the peaceful devolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 and offering solutions for the resolution of conflicts in former Yugoslavia where essential achievements.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe had also successful passed the exam of the disintegration of former Soviet Union, paving the way for peaceful resolution of border conflicts, management of local wars ( as the Caucasus area ) and insuring the construction of democratic , open society in former USSR countries.

In 1999, the unlawful attack against Serbia, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe had being gradually transformed from an arena of dialogue and fostering cooperation in a place for distorting the framework of cooperation that dramatically reduced the organization standing in the world.

Only in 2010 the mechanisms of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe had being one again put in motion by the will and strength of Kazakhstan.

The Chairmanship of Kazakhstan in 2010 will be without a doubt hailed as the most glorious moment on Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe history: a moment for international gathering, for creating a path for reform and relevance of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in XXI century and the involvement of democratic civil societies in the organization development where all felicitous decision that insured the survival of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

This moment of multilateral cooperation must be exploited and Kazakhstan experience must become the main pillar of an international cooperation model.

We need this international cooperation and the restart of international organization efficiency and global action if we want to muster the changes that lay ahead of our civilization.

 Anton caragea finalizeaza conferinta

The respect for international law: main pillar of diplomacy in XXI century.

The XXI century appears to be a period of numerous conflicts: ethnic cleansing, civil wars, irregular international interventions. If we have to summarize all this conflicts and international tensions have just one common trend: the total disregard towards international norms and laws.

Unfortunately, in the last two decades, after the end of the Cold War, the efforts of some interested parties to foster a uni-polar world, to undermine the international associations and to misused and miss appropriate the concept of human rights had created a general state of conflict and an unprecedented time of discord.

The first concept that we have to use: is to balance the human rights issue with the national rights and to rebuke firmly and decisively the ideas of conflict between individual rights and nation rights.

The nation and statehood concept are an intricate part of the concept of respecting human rights.

National protection of human rights is the only natural and acceptable possibility of offering the protection of human rights. The last two decades of international affairs express clear the fact that international intervention in the so called favor of human rights are no less than war crimes and a total disregard of human rights.

The long and unfinished tragedy of Iraqi people after the First Golf War and after Second Golf War, are creating a clear picture of the failed human rights based intervention:   more than 2 billon euro in destruction, famine, starvation, the destruction of infrastructure and sanitary and cultural services for 20 million people and more than 1 million killed and 3 million refugees, this was the tragic result of the United States intervention in Iraq.

The 1999 Kosovo crisis has also expressed the same results of the unlawful character of the human rights based interventions.   The NATO led intervention in Serbia had created 1 million refugees, around 100.000 killed and terrifying destruction   and left a terrible international law wound: Kosovo, an illegal so called state in the heart of Europe.

The list of destruction created by the human rights based intervention can be extended to civil war in Syria, anti-Libya intervention, Haiti terrifying experience etc.

The necessity to foster and strengthen the recognition and application of international laws and norms is the most important necessity for a peaceful XXI century.

 

Four golden rules of international law.

The main principles of Platform for Peace and Security in Europe and Asia states the respect of fundaments of international law such as: equality among states, the rejection of interference in the internal affairs of independent countries, the rejection of threaten with force and use of force in international arena and the consensus as the main feature of common international activity etc.

These main principles are the only sound and common accepted principles that could build true representative coalitions, coalitions that could address efficiently the provocation of XXI century.

This principles have being forgotten  or even replaced in international activity of the last 20 years, a feature that undermined the efficiency of international bodies  and aloud the violence in international affairs to reach unacceptable levels.

Equality among states is the fundamental, basic principle, on which international diplomacy is based in the last four centuries.

Without equality of small to medium or big states, the international arena becomes a place for using the right of force instead of force of right. The fundamental condemnation off all wars and the main body of diplomatic activity is based on the self evidence of the equality amongst states.

The Second World War, to mention only the most known example, had started only on the base of disregard toward the principle of equality of all international actors. In the moment that appears the idea of a qualification and a selection among states, this is the first step toward aggression, war and the dismantling of United Nation principles.

Unfortunately, the last two decade transformed this principle in a so called forgotten or obsolete international norm, allowing that by indiscriminant actions, sanction regime, targeted political attitude and aggression`s some state to be deprived by their use of air space, or of maritime border or to be forbidden to acquire certain types of arm’s or defensive equipment or event to pursue scientific research or develop their economy.

This long line or arbitrary measures, contrary to international norms are based on a so called classification in good or bad states, in axes of evil or axes or good. Such a classification, contrary to international law, is a fragrant violation of the basic principle of equality amongst nation.

The non-interference in internal affairs is another principle that must be restored, if the climate of insecurity and war that prevailed in the last period is to find an end.

The basic principle of independence and sovereignty and of respect among nations was specially subjected to enormous pressure in international arena.

 New, unrecognized principles of   a so called humanitarian right to interference or humanitarian interference or the right to preserve minority, all contra factual invention had appeared in international arena with devastating consequences.

The wars in Balkans, the conflicts in former Yugoslavia, the conflicts in Caucasus, the Iraqi war, to mention just a few of the abomination resulted in this deviation  of international norms, are speaking plainly to the necessity to restore this principle of independence and sovereignty in the international diplomacy.

The non-interference is the only solution for creating a climate of respect amongst nation, of fostering the international laws to their former glory and to allow international organizations to find their true partners in the construction of a free and normal world: nation’s state.

Without the umbrella of non-interference, no nation’s state could be sure of his territorial integrity, of his place in the world arena or about his right to protect his citizens and his interest and to act responsible in the construction of the XXI century world.

The rejection of non-interference principles is creating an insecure world, in destroying the human rights and by destroying the national state is supporting the flourishing of terrorism and of non-state actors that could have an infelicitous behavior.

 The rejection of thereat of use of force in international arena is another fundamental principle that could not be negotiated, if the XXI century is to be a place of law and international norms.

The latest decade had also seen an unsavory use of rattle sobering and threats against independent and free states by groups of other states.

The violent mass media campaign, the use of rhetoric and of violent language in international diplomacy made this concept to look obsolete, when only his respect could be the base for a more security world.

In the global village of XXI century, where information and communications became not only essential tools, but essential security risks, the full and correct complying with this principle of refraining to the use of threat to the use of force must be restored.

The use of threats, of labeling in international arena, is the first step towards military intervention, diabolizing states , removing them from international arena, isolation policy, are all steps toward aggression and war that must be reprehended.

We must never forgot that the Second World War started by the use of a so called Czech peril to Europe stability , when a small country of 20 million people was accused of preparing an attack on 90 million strong Hitler`s Germany.

This is just an historical example and the latest two decades have seen many such outrages claims being presented in the international media as basic truth and later bases for international intervention.

The Second Golf War started in the search of illusory weapons of mass destruction, that have never being fund, is just the latest example of the tragic use of lies and disinformation and of threats with the use of force or bland aggression against independent countries.

Such actions had long time undermined the international security and had created a climate of universal suspicion and of pointing fingers that proved to be disruptive to international cooperation.

  The latest fundamental principle is the principle of consensus in international arena.

Without a doubt this fundamental principle was under attack as in the latest decade the international actions have being far from consensual.

Actions based on crossing the principle of international laws and diplomacy and on fabricated evidence like in the case of the attack on Serbia in 1999 or on Iraq in 2003, had proved to be incapable of mastering a consensus.

This is not a proof of the inefficiency of this principle, but just the contrary, this is the demonstration that only the consensus based activity is really positive and is creating the necessary framework for efficient activity of international organizations.

Only the consensus can prove that the cooperation and action on behalf of the international community are really based on the free will of the states and nations of United Nations and are not just the result of pressure or manipulation.

The principle of consensus had worked on the First Iraq War of 1990, when a broad consensus of all nations, drive Saddam Hussein forces out of Kuwait.

 A consensus based activity is efficient, speedy and supported by all international forces and is having the force of law and diplomacy.

Consensus is possible and is the only way that international cooperation could be achieved.

All international actions not based on consensus are illegitimate and inefficient; majority is not enough in international arena and in international law. The community of states is based on equality, respect of fundamental rights and on consensus. Only by this way international activity can resolve crisis, not create new ones.

The tragic history of the last 20 years has spoken enough about this.

The Platform for Peace and Security in Europe and Asia, the latest drive for peace and a better world in XXI century, launched by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev, is part of a long tradition of searching and promoting peace in the world.

This initiative is having all the necessary ingredients to be successful, mainly because is rational and based on the reconstruction of international norms.

We also must draw attention to a dangerous trend: the rapid decline of the national states, the increase power of criminal groups from economy, politics and even military areas and the increase insecurity in international affairs.

These dangerous trends are increasing in Asia: conflicts for influence and borders, internal civil wars, international interventions, military threat are flourishing. Other continents like Africa are also engulfed in crimes and corruption and in collapsing national states.

This general climate of conflict, tragic global insecurity and outer disregard for international norms is making more urgent and necessary a global solution based on the value and inspiration of Platform for Peace and Security in Europe and Asia.

This must be not only a search of peace of diplomats and the powerful elite of this world.

Security and peace are essential for every individual, state, community and interest group.

Without security, and in the perpetuation of the present day climate, nobody is safe and the world development is in balance. The world spruce up goes by the fulfillment of the Platform for Peace and Security in Europe and Asia commitments.

We need a global voice to resolve the global issue and to balance the forces of destruction and chaos in today`s world.

In Bucharest, Conference on Platform for Peace and Security in Europe and Asia, the voices of intellectual, diplomatic and academic elite of Europe had being heard for the first time.

Let`s not let this voices to go in vain.

Peace is everybody quest.

Professor dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS, EDA

February 14, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

ROMANIAN REAL ESTATE PRICES IN 2013. ROMANIA INDEX OF PROPERTIES

Monday-4 February 2013, under the patronage of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania, the conference on REAL ESTATE IN ROMANIA IN 2013. Lower prices or bankruptcy. has taken place. The conference was a get together of real estate agents, experts, brokers and real estate funds from Romania and EU and economists.

real estate-scaderea preturilorReal estate value had reached  the values of 2000. The fall in prices continues.

2012: a record loss on real estate field.

The debates started by highlighting the drop in prices on real estate market in Romania during 2012. The average price reduction was around 45% last year, the biggest drop since the crisis hit Romania but the prices are still a long way to go before they reach the real estate reality area. New significant drops in prices are necessary until the market will stabilized and the investment in real estate will become one more time efficient.

The initial value of 1.200/1.300 euro per square meter had dropped by the year end towards 800 to 650 euro per square meter, but is a long way to go until normal prices will come back on Romanian real estate.

The real dimensions of real estate crisis in Romania where made public: real estate frozen projects are reaching a value of 3 billion euro, the bankruptcy numbers in the construction field reach 80% of the investor`s numbers and 2 billion euro announced to be invested in real estate never materialized .

2013: a 60%percent drop in prices is expected.

The real estate market will continue on a downward spiral, with decreasing in prices reaching 80% in rural areas, secondary or vacation house and provincial cities real estate objectives.

The prices are expected to fall below 200-250 euro per square meter in prime areas of Bucharest real estate.

The falling in prices is fueled by the banking crisis, the spike in banking interest rates, high inflation, dramatic decrees in investment, drastic reduction in real income for majority of Romanians and also decrees in foreign investments and in revenues from Romanian working abroad.

To this long list of negative trends we can add the 100.000 flats that will be put on the market by the banks in the foreclosure process.

Already the banks presented the actions starting prices ranging fro 19.000 to 22.000 euro for one room flat, to 30.000 euro per two rooms flat and around 45.000 euro for three room flats. The mansions and villas are sold at pricing ranging from 60.000 euro per 100 squared meters villas for high luxury areas and as low as 20-30.000 euro in secondary areas.

The prices for land already dropped with 70% in 2012 and will furthermore decrease with 50% this year, bellow 50 euro per square meter in central areas of Bucharest.

Other phenomena that are impacting downwards the prices are: a drop in population income by 30% in 2013,a negative trend that will reduce bellow 20.000 people the number of real estate buyers ( from a maximum of 1 million Romanians active on real estate market before the crisis).

The banking system is engulfed in crisis and the average real interest is around 20% which is making the cost of real estate credits unsustainable. We can conclude that taking a real estate loan in this period is the path towards bankruptcy and foreclosure for 90% of the clients.

real estateThe houses market has collapsed and left 1 million romanian`s heavy indebted.

The real estate market is flooded by foreclosure.

The real estate collapse will continue and be aggravated on the count of individual properties foreclosures and also company bankruptcy that will flood the market with over 10.000 hectares of prime land that will press down the prices this year.

1.000 to 2.000 villas and mansions will also appear on the market in 2013 in areas as: Colentina, Bucurestii Noi, Pipera, Baneasa, Damaroaia etc. This will be sold on the market at prices bellow 60.000 euro and will push toward collapse the luxury real estate market.

This conservative estimates are based on property values offered already on the market by the banks on the foreclosure process stated Lo Petersen from banking consortium active on Romanian market. The decrease in economic activity forecasted for this year will only aggravate the situation concluded the official.

Chef Economist Mihail Racaceanu underlined in his speech that real estate market can not operate outside the negative climate of Romanian and EU economy.

The price per square meter in prime real estate areas cannot be over medium salary value by more than two times. As in Romania the salary is around 200 euro a price per square meter can not be substantiated up to more than 400 euro per square meter.

The responsibility of real estate crisis is mostly the burden on the lacuna of education of Romanian real estate agencies. The real estate agent must emphasize the necessity of a rapid reduction of prices in order to mend the crisis on real estate market. The market will restart if we will reach the interest zone around 300 euros, concluded the chief economist.

real estate1On the market there is a proverb: who buy, is a looser.

The housing/villa market: the main victim of 2013.

The main hit will be directed in 2013 towards houses and villas.

The economy crisis had dramatically reduced the number of interested players for buying this type of real estate, and the expenses to maintain such a property had gone up impressively, worsening the perspective for this type of properties. This type of properties is the most vulnerable for banking foreclosures because rapid prosecuted and sell on the market at prices below 80.000 euro thus villas can help the banks to cut their losses. In 2013 areas such as: Mosilor, Damaroaia ,Bucurestii Noi,  Pipera, Baneasa, Tunari still offer the possibility to be sold around 60.000 euro, the rest of the areas of south and east of the capital are completely unfit for marketing and selling.

The foreclosures will open the market for villas at below 60.000 euro, concluded the panel of experts.

Simple truth: who buy`s is a looser!

In order to reignite the real estate market the key role is belonging to the real estate agencies.  They must apply the necessary pressure to bring down the prices by at least 50% and to lead the properties owners from the la la land fantasies prices to a real assessment of the value of their properties in order to restart financial operations and re-emergence of profit on the market.

We should understand an obvious lesson that no investment in Romania is possible at prices of 400-500 euro per square meter as long as similar opportunities are to be found in Hungary, Greece, Turkey or Bulgaria but at prices below 100 euro.  In this moment any buyer of Romanian properties is a looser, concluded the guests present at the conference.

February 4, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

PRETURI CASE. PRETURI TERENURI. EVOLUTII IMOBILIARE IN 2013

Luni, 4 februarie 2013, a avut loc, sub egida Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, conferinta:  Piata Imobiliara in 2013.  Scaderea preturilor si falimente !

 Conferinta a reunit economisti, experti imobiliari, firme de brokeraj imobiliar si fonduri de investitii imobiliare din strainatate.

 real estate-scaderea preturilor

Scaderile de preturi au adus piata la nivelul anilor 2000, noi reduceri de preturi sunt asteptate.

2012: o noua scadere record pe piata imobiliara.

 

Dezabaterea a inceput cu  analiza reducerilor de preturi de pe piata imobiliara din Romania. Scaderile medii de preturi, de peste 45% in anul trecut, au fost sensibile, dar nu au adus inca in domeniul realitatii piata imobiliara romanesca, noi scaderi drastice de preturi fiind necesare pana cand piata se va stabiliza si investitia imobiliara va redeveni eficienta.

Scaderea de valoare, de la 1.200/1.300 de euro pe metrul patrat la 800-650 de euro, nu reprezinta decat inceputul normalizarii pietii proprietatilor imobiliare romanesti. Alte cifre facute publice, in cadrul intalnirii, au aratat dimensiunile prabusirii: proiecte imobiliare inghetate in valoare de peste 3 miliarde de euro, numarul falimentelor in lumea developerilor ( constructorilor ) a depasit 80%, retragerea de pe piata romaneasca a peste 2 miliarde de euro, ce ar fi trebuit investite in imobiliare.

2013: o scadere prognozata de 60% a preturilor.

Evolutia pietei imobiliare in 2013 va fi in continuare una negativa, cu scaderi de peste 80% pe zona rurala si a oraselor de provincie si a vilelor de vacanta si cu o scadere de 50-60% pentru zona proprietatilor din Bucuresti.

Pretul trebuie sa ajunga, la finele anului, la o valoare de 200-250 de euro pe metru patrat construit, in zonele de prim rang din Bucuresti.

Scaderea preturilor este alimentata de criza sistemului bancar, ratele dobanzilor in crestere, rata ridicata a inflatiei, scaderea economiei romanesti din ultimii ani, scaderea sumelor destinate investitiilor, reducerea drastica a veniturilor reale ale populatiei , scaderea masiva a veniturilor romanilor ce muncesc in afara granitelor etc.

 La acesti factori se adauga si aparitia pe piata a peste 100.000 de apartamente si case  ce vor fi confiscate de banci, ca urmare a dificultatilor financiare ale proprietarilor, in acest an.

 real estate

Povara creditelor bancare sufoca orice noua achizitie. 

Deja bancile au anuntat noile preturi de incepere a licitatiilor, preturi ce ajung la garsonierele situate in zone centrale la sume intre 19.000 si 22.000 de euro, apartamentele cu 2 camere cu 30.000 de euro si cele de trei camere cu 45.000 de euro, vilele peste 100 de metri patrati cu 60.000 de euro, cu conditia sa fie in zone centrale- si cu 20-30.000 de euro in zone perferice.

Preturile terenurilor in Bucuresti, dupa ce au cunoscut deja o scadere cu 70%  in 2012 ,vor scadea din nou cu inca 50%, la sub 50 de euro pe metru patrat, in centrul Bucurestiului.

Alte fenomene ce influenteaza scaderile de preturi, ce au fost evidentiate in timpul conferintei sunt: reducerea veniturilor populatiei in 2013 cu 30% , ceea ce va reduce corespunzator  numarul celor ce pot accesa credite si pot face investitii imobiliare la sub 20.000 de oameni ( fata de 1 milion de romani ce tranzactionau pe piata imobiliara, inainte de criza).

Sistemul bancar este gripat si nu poate acorda credite fara o dobanda reala de 20%, ceea ce face costul creditelor imobiliare de nesustinut. Se poate aprecia ca cine acceseaza un credit imobiliar, in aceasta perioada, are 90% sanse sa intre in faliment si sa isi piarda proprietatile.

 

Piata imobiliara este asediata de supra-oferta.

 

Prabusirea imobiliara va continua si se va accentua si datorita aparitiei pe piata imobiliara, ca urmare a falimentelor individuale si de firma, a peste 10.000 de hectare de terenuri construibile, intravilane, ce vor prabusi preturile terenurilor suplimentar.

In plus va aparea pe piata si un fond imobiliar de peste 1.000-2.000 de vile, in zone precum Colentina, Bucurestii Noi, Pipera, Baneasa, Damaroaia etc. care se vor vinde pe piata cu preturi sub 60.000 de euro vor impinge si fosta piata de lux a imobiliarelor in prabusire.

Acestea sunt estimari prudente, cuprinzand date de proprietati  ce se afla pe listele publice de licitatie, cu preturi deja fixate, anunta Lo Petersen, reprezentantul unui consortiu bancar activand pe piata romaneasca. Pe langa aceste proprietati altele se vor adauga in acest an, pe fondul scaderii continue a economiei romanesti a subliniat acelasi oficial.

Economistul sef, Mihail Racaceanu a subliniat din nou in discursul sau ca piata imobiliara nu se poate rupe de climatul nefavorabil al economiei romanesti si europene.

Realitatea ce trebuie subliniata, iar si iar, este ca evolutiile de pe piata imobiliara sunt corelate cu evolutia salariului mediu pe economie.

Pretul unui metru patrat construit, in zonele centrale, nu poate depasi  de doua ori valoarea salariului minim pe economie. Cum in Romania salariul minim  este de sub 200 de euro, rezulta ca nicio casa nu se poate vinde cu un pret de peste 400 de euro pe metru patrat.

O parte din responsabilitatea crizei imobiliare cade pe umerii lipsei de educatie a consumatorului roman si a agentului imobiliar. Rolul acestuia din urma este de a ii consilia pe vanzatori asupra necesitatii de a reduce rapid preturile pentru a ramane pe piata ofertelor.

 Daca nu va exista acest curaj de a spune adevarul clientilor, falimentul pe piata imobiliara se va face in continuare simtit. Repunerea in miscare a pietei imobiliare nu se poate face pana cand preturile nu sunt fortate sa coboare rapid la zona de interes de 300-400 de euro, a concluzionat economistul sef.

Piata case/ vilelor:principala victima a anului 2013.

 

In 2013, in continuare, cele mai drastice scaderi vor avea loc pe piata caselor si a  vilelor.

Criza economiei a redus posibilitatile de achizitionare si joc pe aceasta piata in mod dramatic, in plus cheltuielile crescute de mentenanta a acestui tip de proprietati agraveaza situatia parcului imobiliar.

Factor agravant, acest tip de proprietati este cel mai vulnerabil la rambursarea creditelor, executate rapid si vandute la preturi de 80.000 de euro, vilele mai pot ajuta bancile sa isi recupereze din pierderi. Ca atare si in acest an, atacul bancaro-imobilar se va concentra pe acest sector. Zone precum : Mosilor, Damaroaia,Bucurestii Noi,  Pipera, Baneasa, Tunari se mai pot vinde inca cu preturi in jurul a 60.000 de euro, restul sunt zonelor,  precum sudul si estul capitalei, sunt nevandabile, piata fiind inchisa. Executarile silite vor reinviora piata vilelor vandute la preturi sub 60.000 de euro, au subliniat expertii prezenti la discutie.

real estate1

Cine cumpara : pierde ! este zicala anului 2013.

Cine cumpara, pierde.

Pentru a rezolva problema pietei imobiliare rolul agentiilor imobiliare si al agentilor imobiliare este capital. Numai din aceasta zona poate veni presiunea pentru dinamizarea pietii : scaderea rapida a preturilor cu 50% si presarea proprietarilor spre a intra pe piata imobiliara reala si nu fantezista a proprietatilor, este singura ce poate permite reinceperea vanzarilor si re-aparitia profitului pe piata.

Trebuie sa intelegem o lectie evidenta, anume ca nimeni nu va investii in Romania la preturi de 400 sau 500 de euro metru patrat, cand va gasi acelasi oportunitati in Ungaria, Bulgaria, Turcia sau Grecia la preturi de sub 100 de euro metru patrat. Investitia va merge spre profit  nu spre pierdere, iar deocamdata cine cumpara o proprietate in Romania la actualele preturi pierde, a fost concluzia invitatiilor la conferinta.

February 4, 2013 Posted by | Diplomatie, Economia Romaniei, Educatie, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, Mass media, Piata imobiliara, Politica externa a Romaniei, Real Eastate, Romanian economy, Turism | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

ROMANIA-KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION PROMOTED

On 30 of January 2013, under the auspices of Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, the bilateral meeting between Kazakhstan Charge D`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev and Romanian Minister of Tourism, Business Environment and Small and Middle Enterprises-Maria Grapini has taken place.

 

Ministerul Turismului

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation,Romanian Minister of Tourism, Business Environment and Small and Middle Enterprises-Maria Grapini and H.E. Kazakhstan Charge D`affairs to Romania-Talgat Kaliyev ( from left to right)

 

Ambassador Talgat Kaliyev had started by expressing Kazakhstan side appreciation for Romanian efforts in supporting Astana-`s candidature as host of World Expo 2017 and in organizing the exhibition ASTANA: CAPITAL OF THE FUTURE in Bucharest. Tabled at the meeting were also the Romanian projects of participation to 2017 World Expo in Astana-Kazakhstan capital. The opening of Romania-Kazakhstan Business Council and the concrete projects of economic cooperation between the two countries where also discussed.

Minister Maria Grapini had underlined the necessity for Romania to stay true to the national interest of holding the strategic partnership with Kazakhstan. In this amicable atmosphere was approached  the issue of  bilateral economic cooperation in the framework of   Romania-Kazakhstan  Business Council  and a series of concrete projects designed to develop the bilateral relation in the next period.

Afterwards, Kazakhstan Charge d`affairs was invited to attend the open planning  meeting between Professor Dr. Anton Caragea and Minister Maria Grapini regarding the main priorities and tourism development strategy for EU and Romania for 2013.

During the strategy meeting where discussed issues like: ambassadors trip for 2013 and Romanian participation to great European projects for tourism development and the nomination for Organizer of World Expo 2020.

Consultari Ministerul Turismului

February 4, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

COOPERARE IN DOMENIUL ECONOMIC INTRE ROMANIA SI KAZAHSTAN

In data de 30 ianuarie 2013, in organizarea prof.dr.Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, a avut loc intalnirea intre Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev si Ministrul Turismului, Mediului de Afaceri si Intreprinderilor Mici si Mijlocii-D-na Maria Grapini .

Ministerul Turismului

Prof.dr.Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, Ministrul Turismului, Mediului de Afaceri si Intreprinderilor Mici si Mijlocii-D-na Maria Grapini si Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului in Romania-Talgat Kaliyev ( de la stanga la dreapta)

 

In cadrul intalnirii Excelenta sa Talgat Kaliyev a multumit pentru sustinerea acordata de catre Romania  candidaturii capitalei Kazahstanului, Astana, pentru Expozitia Universala din 2017 si pentru organizarea la Bucuresti a Expozitiei de arta : Astana –Capitala Viitorului . Cu aceasta ocazie au fost trecute in revista proiectele concrete de participare a Romaniei la Expozitia Universala de la Astana. Totodata ambasadorul Kazahstanului a prezentat deschiderea Consiliului de Afaceri Romania-Kazahstan in luna octombrie 2012 si rolul capital al acestei institutii in dialogul economic bilateral.

D-na Ministru Maria Grapini a observat ca Romania trebuie sa depuna si va depune in continuare toate eforturile necesare pentru dezvoltarea relatiei strategice Romania –Kazahstan  si pentru dezvoltarea cooperarii economice intre cele doua tari in cadrul Consiliului de Afaceri Romania-Kazahstan si a discutat apoi proiecte concrete de dezvoltare a relatiei bilaterale in perioada urmatoare.

Apoi Insarcinatul cu Afaceri al Kazahstanului-Talgat Kaliyev a fost invitat sa participe la discutia intre prof.dr.Anton Caragea si D-na Ministru Maria Grapini privind stabilirea prioritatilor pentru perioada urmatoare si strategia de turism europeana si romaneasca pentru perioada anului 2013.

In cadrul strategiei pentru dezvoltarea turismului au fost trecute in revista excursiile ambasadorilor pentru anul 2013 si participarea Romaniei la marile proiecte europene si la nominalizarea organizatorului  World Expo 2020.

Consultari Ministerul Turismului

February 4, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment