Centrul Diplomatic/Diplomatic Center

Centrul de Studii Politice si Diplomatie/ Center for Political Science and Diplomacy

PRESEDINTELE NICOLAS MADURO DEVINE ARHITECTUL NOII DIPLOMATII BOLIVARIENE

Presedintele Nicolas Maduro a revenit la Caracas, dupa un periplu diplomatic care a cuprins: Algeria, Kazahstan si Orientul Mijlociu ( periplu in cadrul caruia a sustinut intrevederi cu liderii din Turcia, Iran, Kazahstan, Rusia si Algeria) si intre 16 si 17 septembrie 2017 va gazdui CONFERINTA MONDIALA: TOTI SUNTEM VENEZUELA. DIALOG PENTRU PACE, SUVERANITATE SI DEMOCRATIE BOLIVARIANA.

 

Timp de doua zile, capitala Venzuelei, Caracas, va gazdui liderii mondiali ai miscarilor pentru democratie si drepturile omului.

 

In mai putin de o saptamana, liderul revolutiei bolivariene a reusit sa construiasca o relatie solida intre Venezuela si principalele tari exportatoare de petrol, reusind sa realizeze un pod al prieteniei intre America Latina si tarile din regiunea Asiei Centrale.

Abia reintors in tara si va gazdui intalnirea la nivel mondial a liderilor mondiali ai miscarilor democratice, reusind sa obtina nu doar expresii de solidaritate si prietenie cu Venezuela, dar si sa plaseze in prim planul actualitatii internationale conceptul uneie diplomatii bolivariene, concept creat si plasat in centrul atentiei diplomatiei mondiale de catre liderul de la Caracas.

 

Manifestul lansat pentru CONFERINTA MONDIALA: TOTI SUNTEM VENEZUELA. DIALOG PENTRU PACE, SUVERANITATE SI DEMOCRATIE BOLIVARIANA este cea mai complexa si exhaustiva prezentare a obiectivelor diplomatiei bolivariene de pana in acest moment si trebuie privita drept un pivot in dezvoltarea unei lumi multipolare, o lume bazata pe democratie si pace globala.

 

Venezuela a devenit sub conducerea Presedintelui Nicolas Maduro un adevarat centru democratic mondial.

 

Pentru a putea mai bine intelege acest apel global pentru pace, lansat cu ajutorul si supervizarea Presedintelui Nicolas Maduro va prezentam textul integral al acestui mesaj adresat popoarelor lumii:

 

ÎN FAVOAREA PĂCII, SUVERANITĂȚII ȘI A DEMOCRAȚIEI ÎN VENEZUELA

 

Noi, cetățeni și cetățene ale lumii, muncitori și muncitoare, membrii ai mișcărilor sociale, ai organizațiilor pentru drepturi civile, ai partidelor politice, profesori și profesoare universitare, intelectuali, creatori și creatoare, denunțăm în fața umanității conspirația internațională condusă de Guvernului lui Donald Trump împotriva poporului Republicii Bolivariene Venezuela, a Guvernului și autorităților sale legitime.

Sub pretextul unui discurs despre supremație rasială, intoleranță și militarism, care rememorează cele mai întunecate timpuri ale fascismului, Guvernul lui Donald Trump comite o agresiune politică, diplomatică, economică și mediatică, incluzând opțiunea militară, cu scopul de a destabiliza democrația venezuelană, de a-l înlătura pe Președintele Nicolás Maduro și de a instaura un Guvern subjugat intereselor Washingtonului.

Proiectul de restaurare neocolonialistă în Venezuela urmărește să priveze poporul venezuelan de dreptul său la suveranitate și să redea puterilor globale controlul asupra imenselor bogății și resurse ale țării.

 

Această conspirație împotriva unei țări suverane, care încalcă în mod vădit dreptul internațional, se desfășoară cu sprijinul masiv al marilor trusturi transnaționale media, și cu susținerea penibilă acordată de guverne neoliberale și antipopulare.

Din luna aprilie, cu finanțare și sprijin nord-american – prin intermediul opoziției venezuelane – a fost inițiată o campanie de violență politică prezentată lumii ca proteste civile și pașnice. La această campanie de dezinformare s-a adăugat denigrarea mediatică a democrației venezuelane în fața opiniei publice mondiale, prin care Venezuela a fost prezentată ca o dictatură care încalcă drepturile omului și care a afundat țara într-o așa-zisă criză umanitară.

Adevărul este că unica intenție a acestei campanii constă în înlăturarea Guvernului legitim al Venezuelei prin propagarea morții, a haosului și a violenței, în stilul așa-numitelor ”Revoluții Colorate”.

Începând de atunci, peste o sută de persoane au decedat și peste două mii au fost rănite. Violența politică încurajată de Washington i-a cauzat poporului venezuelan grave daune materiale și suferințe.

Cea mai recentă manifestare a acestui complot constă în discreditarea procesului electoral care a avut loc pe 30 iulie, în cadrul căruia peste opt milioane de venezuelani și venezuelane au ales o Adunare Națională Constituantă.

Prin alegerea Adunării Naționale Constituante, poporul venezuelean a contracarat violența manifestată pe străzi și a restaurat pacea.

Prin recenta amenințare cu utilizarea forței militare, emisă de Donald Trump, și prin impunerea unei blocade financiare asupra Venezuelei, Guvernul rasist de la Washington a escaladat conflictul, declarându-și în mod deschis intenția de a ”sufoca” economia venezuelană.

Respingem escaladarea periculoasă a agresiunilor împotriva Venezuelei, de către administrația nord-americană.

Venezuela este o națiune care de 18 ani încoace edifică în mod pașnic o democrație populară. Democrația bolivariană a redat țării controlul asupra resurselor naturale, a redistribuit bogăția muncitorilor și sectoarelor defavorizate, și a asigurat drepturi sociale tuturor locuitorilor săi.

 

Presedintele Nicolas Maduro este primit in intrega lume ca un mesager al pacii democratiei si demnitatii.

 

Progresele sociale înregistrate de Venezuela în domeniul educației, sănătății, protecției sociale, universalizării asigurărilor sociale și respectiv în domeniul drepturilor comunităților originare, demonstrează faptul că este posibil ca democrația să devină și mai democratică.

Viziunea sa eco-socialistă îi desfide pe cei care impun spolierea bunurilor comune ale umanității de către elitele transnaționale.

Venezuela nu reprezintă o amenințare pentru nicio țară a lumii.

De la dobândirea independenței, de acum peste 200 de ani, niciodată nu a avut un conflict militar și nici nu a participat la războaie sau agresiuni împotriva altor națiuni.

Pentru iubitorii de pace și pentru popoarele lumii, Venezuela este un far de speranță. Această speranță este astăzi amenințată de ideologia rasistă instalată la Washington. Decizia elitei care guvernează Statele Unite constă în blocarea dialogului politic, a dialogului în Venezuela, și în aruncarea țării într-un conflict fratricid, cu scopul de a-și justifica astfel planurile de intervenție.

Alertăm întreaga lume cu privire la grava amenințare la adresa păcii mondiale, derivată din obsesia militaristă a lui Donald Trump.

O agresiune militară în Venezuela, sau distrugerea Revoluției Bolivariene, va provoca pe această emisferă, o criză de dimensiuni istorice în toate domeniile și va anihila eforturile de integrare, distrugând obiectivul tuturor națiunilor din regiune, care au declarat America Latină și Caraibii ca zonă de pace.

Lumea trebuie să oprească nebunia Washingtonului.

În numele umanității, îi cerem lui Donald Trump să retragă amenințarea cu agresiunea militară și să anuleze sancțiunile economice și blocada financiară împotriva poporului venezuelan.

Din aceste considerente, convocăm bărbații și femeile de bine din orice regiune, de orice ideologie și credință, îi convocăm pe cei care visează la o lume a justiției și egalității, să se alăture ZILEI MONDIALE TOȚI SUNTEM VENEZUELA. DIALOG ÎN FAVOAREA PĂCII, SUVERANITĂȚII ȘI DEMOCRAȚIEI BOLIVARIENE, care se va desfășura în Caracas, Venezuela, pe 16 și 17 septembrie și, începând cu această dată, în diferite locuri din lume. Această zi de mobilizare mondială va consolida răspunsul solidar al popoarelor față de Patria lui Simón Bolívar.

Venezuela nu este singură. Astăzi, onorăm bravul popor venezuelan pentru lupta sa în favoarea păcii, a dialogului și a apărării demnității și suveranității sale naționale.

Mahatma Gandhi a spus că “nu există nicio cale către pace. Pacea este calea”, iar Ché Guevara, prin exemplul său de umanitate, a afirmat că “solidaritatea este tandrețea popoarelor”.

În fața amenințării imperialiste și a militarismului, spunem astăzi împreună cu uriașul Pablo Neruda, drapelul nostru și victoria noastră vor fi pacea.

“Pace pentru amurgurile care vin (…) pentru orașul din zorii dimineții, când se însuflețește pâinea …”

Pace pentru ca Venezuela să dăinuie luminând viitorul.

Advertisements

September 24, 2017 Posted by | Africa, Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Caracas, CEL MAI BUN AMBASADOR AL ANULUI 2013, CEL MAI BUN PARLAMENTAR ROMAN, Diplomatie, Donald J. Trump, Eco-Socialism, Educatie, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, IONEL AGRIGOROAEI, Istorie, Kazahstan, Mass media, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, NICOLAS MADURO, Nicolas Maduro - Presedintele Venezuelei, Obiectivele de Dezvoltare Durabila, Politica externa a Romaniei, PRESIDENT DONALD J TRUMP, Relatii Internationale, Socialism, Universitati | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

PRESIDENT NICOLAS MADURO: THE ARCHITECT OF BOLIVARIAN DIPLOMACY! AN AUTHENTIC DIPLOMACY OF PEACE!

President Nicolas Maduro has just return to Caracas after a tour of Kazakhstan, Algeria, Middle East ( having meetings with leaders of Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan,Russia and Algeria) and from 16 to 17 September 2017 will host the WORLD CONFERENCE: WE ARE ALL VENEZUELA. DIALOG FOR PEACE, SOVEREIGNTY AND BOLIVARIAN DEMOCRACY.

 

Venezuelan capital-Caracas will host the leaders interested in world democratic dialogue and values in a two days long global dialogue.

 

In less than a week the Bolivarian revolution leader has succeeded in linking Venezuela with the main petrol exporting countries, managed to create a bridge of friendship between Latin America and Central Asia and will play host to world leaders and democratic movement heads garnering not only to express support for Venezuela but also to enact the Bolivarian diplomacy, the concept carved out and placed at the fore by the Venezuelan president.

 

The call to the WORLD CONFERENCE: WE ARE ALL VENEZUELA. DIALOG FOR PEACE, SOVEREIGNTY AND BOLIVARIAN DEMOCRACY! is the most complete and exhaustive description of the main aims of Bolivarian diplomacy and must be regarded as a crux in the development of a multipolar world, a world of democracy and peace.

 

In order to better understand this call for global peace, launched with the help and supervision of President Nicolas Maduro we are presenting in full the text of the message to the peoples of the world:

 

 Under President Nicolas Maduro, Venezuela has become one of the leaders of the democratic world.

 

MESSAGE TO THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD

FOR PEACE, SOVEREIGNTY AND DEMOCRACY IN VENEZUELA

We, citizens of the world, workers, members of social movements, civil rights organizations and political parties, academics, intellectuals and creators, denounce before humanity the international conspiracy led by the Government of Donald Trump against the people of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, its Government and its legitimate authorities.

Under a speech of racial supremacy, intolerance and warmongering, which remind us of the darkest times of fascism, the Government of Donald Trump wages a political, diplomatic, economic and media aggression, including the military option, to undermine Venezuelan democracy, to overthrow President Nicolas Maduro and to establish a government that serves the interests of
Washington.

The neocolonial restoration process in Venezuela seeks to deprive the Venezuelan people from its sovereignty and return to the global powers control over the immense riches and resources of the country.

This conspiracy against a sovereign country, which openly violates international law, makes progress thanks to the full support of the great media transnational companies, and the shameful support of neoliberal and antigrassroots governments.

Last April, a US financed political violence campaign began – through the Venezuelan opposition – and was presented to the world as civil and pacific protests. In addition to this propaganda, a smear campaign was also launched against the Venezuelan democracy before the world public opinion, by projecting Venezuela’s government as a dictatorship that violates human rights and drives the country into an alleged deep humanitarian crisis.

Truth is that the only purpose of this campaign is to overthrow the legitimate Government of Venezuela by spreading death, chaos and violence, following the style of the “Color Revolutions”. Since then, more than a hundred people have died and more than two thousand people have been wounded.

The political violence promoted by Washington has caused significant material damage and suffering to the Venezuelan people.
The latest manifestation of this plot is the discredit of the elections held on July 30th, in which eight millions of Venezuelans elected a National Constituent Assembly.

Thanks to the National Constituent Assembly election, the Venezuelan people defeated violence in the streets and restored peace. From July 30th, a process of stabilization of civil and political life has begun through the participation of all the political parties in the next regional elections for governors to be held in October.
Due to the latest threat of military force by Donald Trump and the financial blockade imposed on Venezuela, the supremacist government of Washington
has intensified the conflict, and has publicly expressed its intention to “choke” the Venezuelan economy.

We reject the escalating aggressions against Venezuela by the US administration.

Venezuela is a nation that has been building people’s democracy in a peaceful manner for 18 years now.

The Bolivarian democracy has returned the control of natural resources to the country, has redistributed wealth in favor of the working class and the humble sectors of society, and has guaranteed the social rights of all its population.

 

 

President Nicolas Maduro is welcomed around the world as a messenger of peace, democracy and dialogue.

 

Venezuela social achievements in the field of education, health care, social protection, social security universalization and indigenous communities’ rights have proven that it is possible to make democracy more democratic.

Its ecosocialist approach challenges those who impose the plundering of common goods of humanity by transnational elites.
Venezuela does not represent a threat to any country in the world. Since its independence, more than 200 years ago, it has never engaged in a military conflict, nor has it ever participated in wars or aggressions against other nations.

For the peace-loving people and the peoples of the world, Venezuela is a beacon of hope. This hope is threatened today by the supremacist ideology of Washington. The US ruling elite has decided to block political dialog in Venezuela and bring this country into a fratricidal conflict in order to justify this elite’s intervention plan.

We alert the world to the serious threat to world peace created by the warmongering obsession of Donald Trump. A military aggression against Venezuela or the overthrow of the Bolivarian Revolution will cause in the hemisphere a crisis of historic proportions in all orders, and will break integrationist efforts, taking away the purposes of all the nations of our region that have declared Latin America and the Caribbean a zone of peace.

The world must stop Washington madness. In the name of humanity, we demand that Donald Trump withdraw the threat of military aggression and repeal the economic sanctions and financial blockade against the Venezuelan people.

For all the above reasons, we call on all respectable men and women, from all places, ideologies and beliefs, on those who dream of a world of justice and equality, to join the WORLD CONFERENCE: WE ARE ALL VENEZUELA. DIALOG FOR PEACE, SOVEREIGNTY AND BOLIVARIAN DEMOCRACY, to be held in Caracas, Venezuela, on September 16th and 17th, and from that date on, in various parts of the world.

This day of global mobilization will bring together the solidarity of the peoples with the homeland of Simon Bolivar.
Venezuela is not alone. Today, we honor the brave Venezuelan people in their struggle for peace and dialog and in their defense of national dignity and sovereignty.

Mahatma Gandhi said: “There is no way to peace, peace is the only way.”

And Che Guevara, with his example of humanity, affirmed: “Solidarity is the tenderness of the peoples”.

In view of the imperial threat and warmongering, let us say today in the words of the great poet Pablo Neruda, our flag and our victory will be peace.

“Peace for the twilights to come (…) peace for the city in the morning when bread
wakes up…”

Peace so that Venezuela continues to illuminate the future.

 

September 13, 2017 Posted by | Africa, African affairs, Blackseanews Agency, Bolivarian Diplomacy, BOLIVARIAN REVOLUTION, Cold War, Diplomacy, Donald J. Trump, Eastern Europe, Economy, European Council on International Relations, Foreign policy, History, Hogo Chavez, Hugo Chavez, Human Rights Council, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, International Relation, Kazakhstan, Latin America, Leaders, Mass media, News, NICOLAS MADURO, NURSULTAN NAZARBAIEV, Open Letter, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Politics, PRESIDENT NICOLAS MADURO, President Nursultan Nazarbaev, President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela, ROMANIAN DIPLOMATIC BULLETIN, Romanian Foreign Policy, Russia, Russian Affairs, Socialism, SOVEREIGNTY AND BOLIVARIAN DEMOCRACY, Sustainable Development Goals, Universities, Venezuela, World Social Forum | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Kazakh Khanate it is a great creation of the nomadic civilization say`s Kazakhstan Ambassador to Romania- Daulet Batrashev

Remarks

by Ambassador of Kazakhstan Daulet Batrashev on the Conference dedicated to the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the foundation of

the Kazakh Khanate (Statehood)

 

Sultan Zhanibek

Sultan Kerey

Sultans Zhanibek and Kerey-the founding fathers of Kazakh Khanate in Taraz-1465

October, 6, 2015

Targoviste city

Your Excellencies,

Dear friends!

 

This is a highly symbolic year for all citizens of my country.

It was exactly 550 years ago, in the center of the Eurasian continent, that our ancestors founded the Kazakh Khanate, a great creation of the nomadic civilization.

It was the starting point in the centuries-long nationhood of our people, which has found its fullest expression in the modern country named Kazakhstan.

As our head of the state, Nursultan Nazarbayev has written:  “Assessing Kazakh history, we must abandon the many stereotypes and instead understand properly what aspects of traditional Kazakh society have ‘imprinted’ themselves into our modern nation.”

It is this centuries-long period of the history of our country that laid the foundation not only of our modern state but also of our multi-vector foreign policy.

The Kazakh Khanate was not, of course, the first chapter in the history of the Kazakh people.

It was heir to the Great Steppe empires – the Turkic Kaganate (of the 6th to 8th centuries) and Eke Mongol Ulus (the Great Empire of Genghis Khan).

However, their origins and development can be traced much further back in time.

The ancient history of the Great Eurasian steppe zone is primarily a history of militant nomadic tribes.

The current territory of Kazakhstan were lands inhabited by Iranian-speaking and Turkic-speaking tribes: the Saka, Kangly, Usuns and Huns.

These ethnic groups had to permanently overcome the twists and turns of war, established diplomatic relations, concluded trade agreements, struck political and military alliances, to extend permanently the territorial framework for the future Kazakh state of today.

Even in the second half of the 5th century BC the man known as the Father of History, the Greek author Herodotus described the vast eastern country of Scythia, which would be also known as “the country of Saka people”.

Ancient Persian sources placed Saka, the population of Great Steppe, to the north of the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers.

The Saka civilization to the west was in contact with the Ancient Greeks and to the east with the Chinese.

Picture4

The Silk Road was crossing the heartland of Kazakh Khanate

To the south, the Saka’s nomadic country of Turan bordered Iran, the land of Indo-Aryan people.

It was this era when the Silk Road, the trade artery linking the early civilizations of East and West first began to emerge.

We also saw the rise of the first political entities within the present territory of Kazakhstan.

 Some historians cite Zoroastrianism’s sacred book of Avesta to point to a state named Kangkha in the midstream of the Syrdarya River around the 7th and 6th centuries BC.

According to ancient Chinese document, the Book of Han, roughly the same areas were occupied in the 2nd century BC by the State of Kangyui.

A successor to the political traditions of the Saka tribes, covering roughly the lands of modern-day southeastern Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan, was the State of Usun.

The arrival of the Great Empire of Huns signaled a milestone in the ethnic, cultural and political development of the people of this land.

In the middle of the 6th century, a decisive role in the development of language, culture and the worldview of the tribes inhabiting Kazakhstan was played by the Turk Empire or Turkic Kaganate (referred to in written sources as “Turkic El”), a  major power of the Early Middle Age.

 The first kagans’ policies were so in tune with the interests of all Turkic tribes that the limits of their authority quickly expanded as far as the Black Sea in the west and the Great Wall of China in the east.

Based on authoritative historical sources, President Nazarbayev has written, “The first Turkic Empire (552-603) was part of the system of political and economic relations between Byzantium, Iran and China.

Presidentele Nursultan Nazarbayev-creatorul Kazahstanului moderna-web

 President Nursultan Nazarbayev has succeeded in putting in the center of the modern Kazakhstan the values of history and tradition

 In its heyday, the Turkic Empire stretched from Manchuria to the Gulf of Kerch and from the Yenisei River to the Amu Darya. Therefore Turkic Kagans became the creators of the first Eurasian empire”.

According to both medieval and modern historians, the Turkic states were the direct successors of the Hun Empire.

The Turks, drawing on the achievements of western and eastern nations, created a distinctive culture with its own writing system, the so-called Orkhon-Yenisei runic script.

Being at the crossroads of different religions, such as Tengrism, Christianity, and Buddhism, the Turkic Kaganate also played a huge role in their subsequent development.

Following the collapse of the Turkic Kaganate, a series of new ethno-political unions of Turkic tribes emerged one after another.

In the area of the Irtysh River, the State of Kimaks appeared in the late 8th century.

Its fall was caused by a powerful wave of migration from the east and in the middle of the 9th century began the rise of Kypchaks.

Eventually they occupied much of Eurasia’s Great Steppe, with its borders  stretching from the Irtysh to the west as far as the Danube’s mouth, with the entire area labeled in Arabic and Persian sources of the period as Desht-i Kypchak (or the Kypchak Steppe).

In Russian sources, the Kypchaks were called Polovtsy and European ones named them Kumans or Kuns.

During the 12th and 13th centuries in Desht-i Kypchak there was a migration of large masses of the population.

The Kypchak confederation was a set of clans and tribes, brought together by both military and economic factors and from which the cultural and linguistic unity of the people gradually emerged.

The fundamental transformation of political and cultural values, economic and ethnic components of Eurasian political entities came in the 13th century after the unification of the entire nomadic Central Asian peoples under the Mongol Empire or Horde led by Genghis Khan.

This emerged following the Supreme congress of nomadic tribes or QURULTAYin 1206.

Ambassador Daulet Batrashev at Kazakhstan 550 years celebration

Kazakhstan Ambassador-Daulet Batrashev presents a detailed outline of the importance and significance of 550 years of Kazakhstan history

Renowned early 20th century Russian historian of Central Asia Vasily Bartold highlighted the deep connections between the Turkic Kaganate and Genghis Khan’s Empire.

According to him, the numerically dominant Turkic-speaking tribes gradually assimilated the core group of Mongolian-speaking warriors in central parts of the Eurasian plains to shape new state entities in the Great Steppe.

Another milestone event for the future of the Kazakh Khanate was the partition of the empire of Genghis Khan into several smaller informal states.

Among them, perhaps the largest was the Golden Horde (Altyn Orda) managed by the descendants of his eldest son Juchi.

The Golden Horde was the first centralized state in post-Mongol period that included most of the modern Kazakhstan’s territories.

Initially part of the Mongol Empire, it was under the control of Genghis Khan’s grandson, Batu (1242-1256), who behaved essentially as an independent ruler.

The key principles of nomadic statehood, which were laid in the foundation of the Golden Horde, were relevant for several other political entities, which developed from Genghis Khan’s descendants in the Great Steppe including the White Horde, the Abulkhair Khanate, Moghulistan, and eventually, the Kazakh Khanate.

Banner 550 years of Kazakhstan statehood10-webUnlike in the previous era, each of these had a number of important features as they emerged largely or exclusively on the territory of modern Kazakhstan.

They had similar political structures and far-reaching similarities in their economic and cultural development.

 In addition, they had common dynastic origin, sharing the tradition derived from Gengis Khan and his descendants of the exclusive right of authority.

In the broader historical context, the remarkable civilization of the Great Eurasian Steppe in the medieval period left its imprint on the development of many of its neighbors too including Iran, China, India, Byzantium, Russia and the countries of Eastern Europe.

It was on the basis of the nomadic civilization that the Kazakh people’s first formalized state emerged and on which the best traditions and accomplishments of political, economic, social and cultural development of the peoples inhabiting the lands of modern-day Kazakhstan are now based.

The new state’s very name – the Kazakh Khanate – confirmed the emergence of a new and hitherto unknown political entity in the 15th century’s historical arena.

The 16th century Central Asian historian Mirza Mohammed Haydar Dulati reported that the Kazakh Khanate was formed in autumn 1465 in the valleys of rivers Chu and Talas in the modern Zhambyl Region in South and South-Eastern Kazakhstan.

This followed the migration of numerous tribes led by the sultans Kerei and Zhanibek that rebelled against the despotic rule of Abulkhair Khan from the rival dynastic branch of Shaibanids.

With the consolidation of the new state, a centralized system of political authority was established in the Great Steppe.

Picture1

The fall of the Shaybanid dynasty cleared the path for the establishment of Kazakh Khanate and for three centuries of stability in Central Asia under the kazakh control. 

Legislative and executive powers were concentrated in the hands of a supreme ruler – Khan, who also performed the duties of a military commander.

The executive and legislative powers of Khan were regulated by such legislative acts of the Kazakhs as the QASYM KHANNYN QASQA ZHOLY (Kassym Khan’s Trodden Path), ESIM KHANNYN ESKI ZHOLY (Esim Khan’s Old Path), and ZHETI ZHARGY (Seven Laws).

These were official documents that regulated public policy and society’s functioning in general.

In turn, these laws were based on the centuries-old customs and traditions of the people.

These codes shaped the public administration of the Kazakh State and defined the concept of “Steppe Democracy.”

The Kazakh society had the right to openly regulate the complicated issues of domestic and foreign policy by electing judges – BIYS, who represented the people’s interests.

A special role in strengthening the Kazakh Khanate, promoting the idea of unity and spreading its message to the people as a whole was played by spiritual leaders – storytellers – ZHYRAUS and AKYNS, as well as musicians – KUISHI.

 Through their works, they raised issues such as the power and responsibility of the KHANS, BIYS, and BATYRS (knights) in securing the independence of the people.

They also drew attention to the importance of foreign policy and international relations, as well as educating the younger generation.

Founded in 1465, the Kazakh Khanate over two and a half centuries evolved.  Its economic, political and cultural policies developed and strengthened.

Timely changes helped strengthen the national spirit of the Kazakh people.

In the 16th century, the Kazakh Khanate was already known throughout much of Eurasia.

Picture3

According to the renowned Russian scholars Vladimir Dahl and Nikolay Baskakov, the ethnic name of “Kazakh” has Turkic origins.

In old Turkic sources the concept of “qazaqlyq” was used as a symbol of freedom and the free way of life.

As Baskakov noted, all interpretations of the word “Kazakh” are related to each other and have common roots, which mean an “independent person”.

He wrote, “the same meaning is associated with the name of Turkic nationality – Kazakhs – and it means a free and independent nomad”.

The early 16th century source known as Zayn ad-Din Vasifi’sBadai Al-wakai” labelled the lands ruled by Kazakh khans as “Kazakhstan”.

The map drawn in 1562 based on information collected by the English traveller and diplomat Anthony Jenkinson – the envoy in Moscow for the English Queens Mary and later Elizabeth the First named the vast land between “Tashkent” in the south and “Siberia” in the north as “Cassackia”.

The greatest political prominence and territorial expansion of the Kazakh Khanate was under the reigns of Khan Qasym who ruled between 1511 and 1523 and later Khan Khak-Nazar who ruled between 1538 and 1580.

During these periods, the Kazakh khans pursued active, independent domestic and foreign policies.

They ruled the lands between the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains, an area quite similar in its shape to the outline of modern Kazakhstan.

Already during this period, foreign policy was determined by a number of important directions, or vectors, which would find their continuation later.

It was during this time, for instance, that early diplomatic relations were established with Russia.

By the 17th century, the process of forming a single nation was generally complete.

As a result, all Turkic and non-Turkic tribes of Central Asia, ruled by the Kazakh Khanate, consolidated into an entity known as Kazakhs.

Picture9Ethnic traditions, customs, a common religion, language and culture were established.

The Kazakh Khanate’s rulers and their people fought hard to preserve the integrity of their national territory.

It was only through the unity of the Kazakh people that external aggression, civil strife and separatist tendencies of individual rulers could be overcome.

We must not also forget the Steppe diplomacy that successfully operated across the vast lands of Eurasia.

The Kazakh Khanate gradually but confidently emerged as an independent force in international relations.

The Kazakh State rulers carried out their foreign policy by diplomatic activity based on rules drawn up from their practical experiences of negotiations with representative of other states.

Only a nation with genes of peacefulness, good-neighbourliness and tolerance in its blood could have safeguarded such a vast territory through the art of diplomacy.

These have become the principles of a multi-vector policy, balance and pragmatism of contemporary Kazakh diplomacy.

The Kazakh Khanate’s history was, however, cut short by a number of negative factors.

In particular, military forces were depleted as a result of the bloody defensive wars of 17th and 18th centuries against a powerful nomadic Empire of the Jungars and the parallel expansion of a new dominant power in Eurasia – the Russian Empire.

It was the Russian Empire, which eventually incorporated lands of the Kazakh khanate – partly voluntarily, partly conquered by force of European weaponry, in the 130 years between 1731 and 1865.

Then followed a controversial, although not a totally negative, period of development under the rule of Russian Tsars.

In the early 20th century, when Russia faced a wave of revolutionary democratic activism, a fresh impetus for Kazakh statehood came from the activities of a new generation of Kazakh intellectuals.

This resulted in formation of the short-lived government of ALASH ORDA, with Alash being a synonym of the name Kazakh.

The All-Kazakh Congress, held in Orenburg city in 1917, created a territorial and national autonomy “Alash” embracing a number of regions with Kazakh population.

All executive powers were passed to the Temporary National Council of Alash Orda, which consisted of 25 members and was led by the eminent statesman, liberal politician, and true patriot Alikhan Bukeykhanov.

Assessing the significance of those events, President Nursultan Nazarbayev in his book “In the Stream of History” wrote that through the Government of Alash Orda: “The Kazakh nation obtained a real chance to reach its primary objective of recreating a national statehood.

However, the peaceful development of events was interrupted by a new crisis in the Russian society, which led to the establishment of a dictatorship of the Bolshevik party”.

Nevertheless, these new socio-political realities led to Kazakhstan having a chance to recapture some form of nationhood.

Milestone events in this process were the creation of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Republic in 1920 and of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936.

However, the truth is that autonomous Kazakh statehood existed only formally.

In reality, there was limited sovereignty and a significant dependence of its authorities first on the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later on the Soviet Union’s leadership.

This all changed with the independence that Kazakhstan gained in 1991, which saw a new stage of Kazakh statehood.

This heralded dynamic political, economic, social and cultural development.

People throughout the world are now aware of our nation’s achievements during this period.

They include the move of our nation’s capital, hosting the OSCE Summit in Astana and the Congresses of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, the triumph of our Olympic team in London 2012, and winning the right to host the EXPO 2017 in Astana.

In his 2012 State-of-the Nation Address, President Nazarbayev set out our country’s development strategy until 2050 to build on all we have achieved.

That is why the 550th anniversary of the first national state of the Kazakhs is so important to our country and people.

In September, with the participation of our President and many foreign visitors, there was a celebration of this significant historical milestone.

It will coincide with a major international conference, which will bring together scholars from around the world who study issues related to the history of the Kazakh khanate.

 

In October, the ancient city of Taraz in the south of our country will host further celebrations.

Taraz

Taraz-the capital city of Kazakh Khanate and the place of the 1465 proclamation of the first Kazakh state by Sultans Zhanibek and Kerey (reconstruction)

Taraz is the capital of the region where the actual events of the formation of the Kazakh khanate took place.

There, on October 8, Kazakhstan will hold a big celebration under the open sky to recreate the atmosphere of those historic events that happened on this land 550 years ago.

Your Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,

 

Thank you for listening to my attempt to explain the importance of the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate for our nation.

I believe this will help improve understanding of the history and identity of the people of Kazakhstan.

Let me end what has been a lengthier statement than usual.

Thank you for your attention. I would be delighted to answer any questions and to hear your opinions and comments on what I have said.

October 13, 2015 Posted by | Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Daulet Batrashev, Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Kazakhstan, Leaders, Mass media, News, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Politics, President Nursultan Nazarbaev, President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Religion | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Hanatul Kazah – o creație măreață a civilizației nomade de Daulet Batrashev, Ambasadorul Kazahstanului in Romania

Discursul

Excelenţei Sale Domnului Daulet Batrashev,

Ambasadorul Extraordinar şi Plenipotenţiar al Kazahstanului in Romania

In cadrul Conferinței dedicate aniversării a 550 de ani de la înființarea Hanatului Kazah 

 
Sultan ZhanibekSultan Kerey
Sultanii Zhanibek si Kerey sunt fondatorii Hanatului Kazah in Taraz in 1465

6 octombrie 2015

Târgoviște

 

Excelenţele Voastre!

Stimați prieteni!

 

Acesta este un an simbolic pentru toți concetățenii mei.

Acum exact 550 de ani în centrul continentului eurasiatic, strămoșii noștri au întemeiat Hanatul Kazah – o creație măreață a civilizației nomade.

Acesta a fost punctul de plecare în atingerea independenţei, un drum parcurs de secole de poporul nostru, care și-a găsit expresia cea mai deplină în țară modernă numita Kazahstan.

Așa cum a declarat seful statului Nursultan Nazarbaev: „In evaluarea istoriei kazahe, trebuie sa renunțam la nenumăratele stereotipuri, iar în schimb să înțelegem corect ce aspecte ale societății tradiționale kazahe s-au „imprimat” in ADN-ul națiunii noastre moderne.”

Această perioadă a istoriei țării noastre, ce a durat secole, a pus bazele nu doar a statului nostru modern, dar, de asemenea, a definit politica noastră externa echilibrata (multi-vector).

Bineînțeles ca Hanatul Kazah nu este primul capitol din istoria poporului kazah.

Acesta fiind succesorul marilor imperii ale stepei – Hanatul turcic (din secolele 6-8) și Eke Mongol Ulus (Imperiul Mongol al lui Genghis Khan).

Cu toate acestea, originile și amprentele lor pot fi regăsite cu mult timp înainte.

Istoria antică a zonei de stepă eurasiatică este în primul rând o istorie a triburilor nomade militante.

Pe teritoriul actualului Kazahstan locuiau triburi iraniene și turcice: sciți, kangli, usuni și huni.

Picture4

Drumul Matasii trecea prin inima Hanatului Kazah

Aceste grupuri etnice trebuiau sa facă față bătăliilor necontenite, sa stabilească relații diplomatice, sa încheie acorduri comerciale, sa creeze alianțe politice și militare, pentru a-si extinde în permanenţă aria de interes către noi teritorii ce vor forma statul kazah de azi.

Chiar și în a doua jumătate a secolului al 5-lea î.Hr. autorul grec Herodot, cunoscut sub numele „părintele istoriei”, a descris marea țara din est – Sciția, care era, de asemenea, cunoscuta sub numele de „țara sacanilor”.

Sursele persane antice plasează sacanii, populația Marii stepe, la nord de râurile Amudaria şi Sirdaria.

Civilizația Saka la vest intra în contact cu grecii antici, iar la est cu chinezii.

La sud, statul scitic nomad Turan învecina cu Iran, populata de indo-arieni.

Aceasta era acea epocă când se forma Drumul mătăsii – artera comercială care lega primele civilizații ale Estului și Vestului.

De asemenea, poate fi urmărita dezvoltarea primelor formațiuni politice pe teritoriul actual al Kazahstanului.

 Unii istorici citează cartea sfântă a zoroastrismului Avesta pentru a face referire la un stat numit Kanga situat pe malul râului Sirdaria in jurul  secolelor secolele 7 și 6 i.Hr.

Potrivit documentului antic chinez, Cartea dinastiei Han, aproximativ aceleași teritorii erau ocupate în secolul 2 î.Hr. de către statul Kangui.

Un succesor al tradițiilor politice ale triburilor Saka, care ocupa teritoriile sud-estice ale Kazahstanului modern și nordice ale Kîrgîzstanului modern, era statul Usun.

Formarea marelui imperiu al hunilor a reprezentat o noua etapa în ceea ce privește dezvoltarea etnica, culturala și politica a oamenilor ce populau aceste locuri.

La mijlocul secolului al 6-lea, un rol decisiv în dezvoltarea limbii, culturii și viziunii asupra lumii a triburilor care locuiau pe teritoriul Kazahstanului modern a jucat Imperiul Turcic sau Hanatul Turcic (menționat in sursele scrise ca „Turkic El”), o mare putere de la începutul Evului Mediu.

 Primele Politici al kaganilor corespundea intereselor tuturor triburilor turcice in așa o măsura încât autoritatea lor sa extins rapid în partea de vest spre Marea Neagră și în est spre Marele Zid Chinezesc.

Presidentele Nursultan Nazarbayev-creatorul Kazahstanului moderna-web

Presedintele Nursultan Nazarbayev-omul care a readus istoria si traditia in inima  stat kazah modern.

Bazându-se pe izvoarelor istorice de mare autoritate, președintele Nazarbayev a declarat: „Primul Imperiu turcic (552-603) a fost parte a unui sistem de relații politice și economice între Bizanț, Iran și China.

 În zilele sale de glorie, Imperiul turcic se întindea din Manciuria pana la Golful Kerci și de la Enisei pana la Amudaria. Prin urmare, Hanatele turcice stau la baza primului imperiu eurasiatic”.

Potrivit atât istoricilor medievali, cat și celor moderni, statele turcice erau succesorii direcți ale Imperiului Hun.

Turcii, bazându-se pe realizările națiunilor din vest si din est, au creat o cultură distinctă cu propriul său sistem de scriere, așa-numitul alfabet runic Orhon-Enisei.

Fiind la intersecția dintre mai multe religii, cum ar fi tengriismul, creștinismul și budismul, Hanatul turcic a jucat de asemenea un rol important în dezvoltarea lor ulterioară.

În urma destrămării Hanatului turcic, una după alta au apărut noi formațiuni etno-politice pe baza triburilor turcice.

În apropiere de râul Irtâș, la sfârșitul secolului 8 a apărut statul Kimaks.

Se considera ca principalul motiv pentru care acest stat s-a destrămat este un val puternic de migrație de la răsărit, iar la mijlocul secolului al 9-lea si-a început ascensiunea Kipchak.

În cele din urmă ei au ocupat o mare parte din marea stepa eurasiatica, hotarele sale întinzându-se de la Irtâș pana in vest la gura Dunării, întregul teritoriu fiind menționat in sursele în limbile arabă și persană din acea perioadă ca Desht-i Kypchak (sau Stepa Kipceak).

În surse rusești, grupul turcilor kipceak erau numiți Polovți, iar in cele europene Cumani sau Huni.

În secolele 12 și 13 din Stepa Kipceak au migrat mase mari de populație.

Ambassador Daulet Batrashev at Kazakhstan 550 years celebration

Ambasadorul Kazahstanului -Daulet Batrashev prezinta un extins raport istoric despre importanta si semnificatia celor 550 de ani de istorie a Kazahstanului.

Confederația Kipceak ara alcătuita dintr-un rând de clanuri și triburi, reuniți datorita unor factori economici și militari din care treptat a apărut unitatea culturală și lingvistică a poporului.

În secolul 13, entitățile politice eurasiatice au suferit o transformare fundamentală a valorilor politice și culturale, a componentelor economice și etnice, ca rezultat al unificării tuturor popoarelor nomade din Asia Centrală sub aripa Imperiului Mongol sau Hoardei conduse de Genghis Han.

Aceasta a apărut ca urmare a consiliul adunării generalilor Kurultai (consiliul bătrânilor) din 1206.

Renumitul istoric rus de la începutul secolului 20 si mare cunoscător al Asiei Centrale Vasili Bartold sublinia legăturile profunde dintre Hanatul turcic și Imperiul lui Genghis Khan.

Potrivit istoricului, triburile predominant vorbitoare de limbi turcice, fiind intr-un număr mare, au asimilat treptat grupul de bază de războinici vorbitori de mongolă, în părțile centrale ale câmpiei eurasiatice pentru a forma noi entități statale în Marea Stepa.

Un alt eveniment reper pentru viitorul Hanat kazah a fost destrămarea imperiului lui Genghis Khan în mai multe state informale.

Dintre acestea, poate cea mai mare a fost Hoarda de Aur (Altyn Orda) condusa de către urmașii celui mai mare fiu al lui Genghis Khan Juchi.

Hoarda de Aur a fost primul stat centralizat în perioada post-mongola, care a inclus cea mai mare parte a teritoriului Kazahstanului actual.

Inițial parte a Imperiului Mongol, a fost sub controlul nepotul lui Genghis Khan, Batu (1242-1256), care, în esență, era un conducător independent.

Principiile cheie ale statalității nomazilor, care au stat la baza Hoardei de Aur, au fost relevante pentru mai multe alte entități politice, care s-au format pe baza Imperiului lui Genghis Khan în Marea Stepa inclusiv Hoarda Alba, Hanatul de Abul Khair, Mogulistan, și în cele din urmă, Hanatul kazah.

Banner 550 years of Kazakhstan statehood10-web

Spre deosebire de epoca anterioară, fiecare dintre aceste formațiuni a avut o serie de caracteristici specifice importante, deoarece acestea au apărut în mare parte sau exclusiv pe teritoriul Kazahstanului modern.

Ele au avut structuri politice similare, iar dezvoltarea lor economică și culturală au prezentat asemănări izbitoare.

În plus, ele au avut origini dinastice comune, împărtășind tradiții lăsate drept moștenire de Genghis Khan și urmașii lui, deținând astfel dreptul exclusiv al autorității.

Într-un context istoric mai larg, civilizația remarcabilă a Marii stepe eurasiatice în perioada medievală a lăsat amprenta asupra dezvoltării multor dintre vecinii săi, inclusiv Iran, China, India, Bizanț, Rusia și țările din Europa de Est.

Aceasta a stat la baza civilizației nomade devenind ulterior primul stat formalizat al poporului kazah, apărut ca rezultat a celor mai bune tradiții și realizări in ceea ce privește dezvoltare politică, economică, socială și culturală a popoarelor care locuiau pe teritoriul Kazahstanului de astăzi.

Noul stat – Hanatul kazah – a consolidat apariția unei entități politice noi și până în prezent necunoscuta pe arena politica a secolului 15.

Istoricul din Asia Centrală Mirza Mohammed Haydar Dulati din secolul 16 notifica că Hanatul kazah a fost format în toamna anului 1465, în văile râurilor Chu și Talas, în regiunea actuala Jambâl în sudul și sud-estul Kazahstanului.

Acest lucru a urmat după o migrare numeroasa a triburilor conduse de sultanii Kerei și Janibek care s-au răzvrătit împotriva conducerii despotice a Hanatului Abul Khair din ramura dinastiei rivale a Șaibanizilor.

Picture1

Caderea Shaibanizilor a deschis drumul spre constituirea hanatului kazah si spre trei secole de stabilitate in Asia Centrala, sub semnul puterii kazahe.

Odată cu consolidarea noului stat, un sistem centralizat a autorității politice a fost stabilit în Marea Stepă.

Puterea legislativă și executivă su-a concentrat în mâinile unui conducător suprem – Hanul, care deținea si funcția de comandant militar.

Puterea executivă și legislativă ale Hanului erau reglementate de acte legislative ale kazahilor cum ar fi QASYM KHANNYN QASQA ZHOLY (Codul Hanului Kasâm), ESIM KHANNYN ESKI ZHOLY (Codul Hanului Esim) și ZHETI ZHARGY (Șapte Legi).

Acestea au fost documente oficiale care reglementau politica publică și funcționarea societății, în general.

La rândul său, aceste legi erau bazate pe obiceiurile și tradițiile vechi de sute de ani ale poporului.

Aceste coduri stabileau reguli legate administrația publică a statului kazah și au definit conceptul de „Stepa Democrației”.

Societatea kazaha avea dreptul de a se implica activ in problemele complexe ale politicii interne și externe prin alegerea judecătorilor – BIYS, care reprezentau interesele oamenilor.

Un rol deosebit in consolidarea Hanatului kazah, promovarea ideii de unitate si de răspândire a mesajului de popor ca un tot întreg au jucat liderii spirituali, povestitorii jârau (ZHYRAUS) si acânii (AKYNS), precum si muzicienii cuișî (KUISHI).

Prin activitatea lor, ei puteau pune in discuție subiecte cum ar fi puterea și responsabilitatea Hanului, Biys-ilor, și cavalerilor (BATYRS) cu scopul de a asigura independența oamenilor.

De asemenea, ei au atras atenția asupra importanței politicii externe și relațiilor internaționale, precum și educarea tinerei generații.

Înființat în 1465, Hanatul kazah a evoluat timp de peste două secole și jumătate. Politicile sale in domeniul economic, politic și cultural erau in dezvoltare si perfecționare continua.

Schimbările implementate în timp util au ajutat la consolidarea spiritului național al poporului kazah.

Picture3

În secolul al 16-lea, in mare, Hanatul kazah era deja cunoscut de toata Eurasia.

Potrivit renumiților savanți ruși Vladimir Dahl și Nikolay Baskakov, numele etnic „kazah” are origini turcice.

În surse turcice vechi conceptul de „qazaqlyq” era folosit ca un simbol al libertății și modului liber de viață.

După cum menționa Baskakov, toate interpretările ale cuvântului „kazah” sunt legate între ele și au rădăcini comune, însemnând o „persoană independentă”.

Savantul notifica ca „aceeași semnificație este asociată cu numele naționalității turcice – kazahii – și înseamnă nomad liber și independent”.

O sursa de la începutul secolului al 16-lea, cunoscuta sub numele „Badai Al-wakai” o lucrare a autorului Zayn ad-Din Vasifi marca teritoriile conduse de Hanul Kazah ca fiind „Kazahstan”.

Harta trasata in 1562 pe baza informațiilor colectate de călătorul și diplomatul englez Anthony Jenkinson, trimis la Moscova de către regina Maria a Angliei, și mai târziu de Elisabeta I, numea vastul teritoriu între „Tașkent”, în partea de sud și „Siberia”, în partea de nord, ca fiind „Cassackia”.

Cea mai mare greutate politică și extindere teritorială, Hanatul kazah a obținut pe timpul domniei Hanului Kasâm care a domnit între 1511 și 1523 și ulterior a Hanului Haknazar, care a domnit între 1538 și 1580.

În aceasta perioadă, hanii kazahi au urmărit o politica internă și externă activă si independentă.

Hanii conduceau ținuturile dintre Marea Caspică pana la Munții Altai, o zonă destul de asemănătoare în forma sa cu granițele actuale ale Kazahstanului.

Deja în această perioadă, politica externă era determinată de mai multe direcții importante, mai mulți vectori politici, care si-au găsit continuarea si dezvoltarea ulterior.

Aceasta era perioada, când, de exemplu, au fost stabilite relațiile diplomatice timpurii cu Rusia.

Astfel, în secolul al 17-lea, procesul de formare a unei singure națiuni, în mare, s-a finalizat.

Ca urmare, sub aripa Hanatului kazah toate triburile turcice și altele din Asia Centrală s-au consolidat într-o entitate cunoscută sub numele de kazahi.

Au fost stabilite tradiții etnice, obiceiuri, religie comună, limba și cultura.

Conducătorii Hanatului kazah și oamenii de rând au luptat din greu pentru a păstra integritatea teritoriului lor național.

Doar prin unitate, poporul kazah putea face fata agresiunilor externe, conflictelor civile și tendințelor separatiste ale unor conducători.

Nu trebuie să uităm nici diplomația Stepei care a funcționat cu succes pe teritoriile vaste din Eurasia.

Hanatul Kazah s-a format treptat, dar ca o forță independentă în relațiile internaționale.

Conducătorii statului Kazah abordau in politica externa si activitatea diplomatica un set de norme bazat pe experiența lor practica de negociere cu reprezentanții altor state.

Picture9

Numai o națiune pașnica, ce respecta principiile bunei vecinătăți și practica toleranța, putea sa-si protejeze teritoriul vast, arta diplomației fiind cheia succesului.

Acestea au devenit principiile unei politici multi-vector – echilibrul și pragmatismul diplomației kazahe contemporane.

Cu toate acestea, dezvoltarea Hanatului kazah a fost împiedicata de o serie de factori negativi.

În special, forțele militare au fost epuizate, ca urmare a războaielor sângeroase defensive din secolele 17 si 18 împotriva puternicului imperiu nomad al Jungarilor și extinderea în paralel a unei noi puteri dominante în Eurasia – Imperiul Rus.

În cele din urmă Imperiul Rus a fost acela care a înglobat teritoriile Hanatului kazah – parțial în mod voluntar, parțial cuceriți de forțele militare europene, timp de 130 de ani între 1731 și 1865.

Apoi a urmat o perioada controversata, cu toate că nu era in totalitate negativă, fiind o etapa de dezvoltare sub conducerea țarilor ruși.

La începutul secolului 20, atunci când Rusia se confrunta cu un val de activism democratic revoluționar, noile generații de intelectuali din Kazahstan au considerat ca aceste evenimente pot fi un nou impuls pentru statalitatea kazahă.

Acest lucru a dus la formarea guvernului de scurtă durată Alaș Orda (ALASH ORDA), Alaș fiind un sinonim al cuvântului kazah.

Congresul general al kazahilor a avut loc în orașul Orenburg în 1917, iar ca rezultat s-a luat decizia creării unei autonomii teritoriale și naționale „Alaș” formata dintr-un număr de regiuni populate de kazahi.

Puterea executiva aparținea Consiliului Național temporar al lui Alaș Orda, care era format din 25 de membri și era condus de omul de stat eminent, politician liberal, și adevărat patriot Alihan Bukeihanov.

Evaluând importanta acestor evenimente, președintele Nursultan Nazarbayev, în cartea sa „În fluxul istoriei”, a menționat că, prin guvernul Alaș Orda: „Națiunea kazahă obținut o șansă reală de a-si atinge obiectivul său principal – acela de a recrea o statalitate națională.

Cu toate acestea, dezvoltarea pașnică a evenimentelor a fost întreruptă de o nouă criză în societatea rusă, care a dus la instaurarea dictaturii partidului bolșevic”.

Totuși, aceste noi realități socio-politice i-au oferit Kazahstanului șansa de a redobândi unele aspecte ce reprezintă o națiune.

Evenimentele de cumpăna în acest proces au fost crearea Republicii Autonome Sovietice Kazahstan în 1920 și a Republicii Sovietice Socialiste Kazahstan în 1936.

Cu toate acestea, adevărul este că statalitatea kazaha autonoma exista doar in mod formal.

În realitate, era vorba de o suveranitate limitată și o dependență semnificativă fata de autoritățile centrale, la început de Republica Sovietică Socialistă Federativă Rusă, ulterior de liderii Uniunii Sovietice.

Lucrurile s-au schimbat odată cu independenta Kazahstanului câștigata în 1991, aceasta fiind o noua etapa in istoria formarii statalității kazahe.

Acest eveniment a avut o contribuție majora in dezvoltarea dinamică a vieții politice, economice, sociale și culturale.

Oamenii din întreaga lume apreciază succesele atinse de poporul kazah in aceasta perioada.

Printre realizări putem aminti mutarea capitalei Kazahstanului, găzduirea Summit-ului OSCE de la Astana și Congresul al liderilor lumii și religiilor tradiționale, succesul echipei naționale la Olimpiada din Londra din 2012, și câștigarea dreptului de a găzdui EXPO 2017 in Astana.

În discursul sau către națiune din 2012, președintele Nazarbayev a stabilit strategia de dezvoltare a țării noastre până în 2050 care se bazează pe toate realizările de pana acum.

Acesta este motivul pentru care 550 de ani de la formarea primului stat național al kazahilor este atât de important pentru țara și poporul nostru.

În septembrie, a avut loc celebrarea acestui eveniment de răscruce din istoria noastră la care a participat președintele Kazahstanului și numeroși invitați străini.

Acest eveniment a coincis cu o conferință internațională majoră, care va reuni oamenii de știință din întreaga lume, care studiază îndeaproape istoria Hanatului kazah.

Taraz

Orasul Taraz-capitala Hanatului Kazah (reconstructie)

În octombrie, orașul antic Taraz în partea de sud a țării va găzdui alte festivități dedicate acestei sărbători.

Taraz este capitala regiunii în care a avut loc evenimentele ce au pus bazele Hanatului kazah.

Aici pe 8 octombrie, Kazahstan va organiza o sărbătoare mare in aer liber pentru a recrea atmosfera acelor evenimente istorice care au avut loc în urmă cu 550 de ani.

Excelențele Voastre, Doamnelor și Domnilor,

 

Vă mulțumesc pentru atenția oferita încercării mele de a explica importanța celebrării a 550 de ani de la formarea Hanatului kazah pentru națiunea noastră.

Cred că acest lucru va ajuta la îmbunătățirea înțelegerii istoriei și identității poporului Kazah.

Permiteți-mi sa-mi închei discursul care a fost mai lung ca de obicei.

Vă mulțumesc pentru atenție. Voi fi încântat să răspund la orice întrebări și să aud opiniile și comentariile dumneavoastră cu privire la cele prezentate de mine.

October 13, 2015 Posted by | Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Daulet Batrashev, Diplomatie, Educatie, Istorie, Kazahstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Relatii Internationale, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, Universitati | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

HOW FIDEL CASTRO SAVED IRAN. THE UNTOLD STORY

On   27 of June   Fidel Castro presented to the world an alarming report announcing a plan form United States and Israel to take advantage of the World Cup diversion and to launch an unexpected attack on Iran . In the moment that we have received this article by Fidel Castro we have understood the urgency of the message and we started printing it and distributed to the world. In hours after we have published it, thousand` s of information sites, press agency and mass media started to report the news. It was a minute to minute crisis as the attack could be launched in two or three days. Fidel Castro analyses stop this march towards war   as the key for a success attack was the element of surprise. Now after everybody has published the Fidel Castro articles it was no more possible any surprise. The story of this effort of preventing a war on Iran is related by Fidel Castro itself.      

The Source of Wars by FIDEL CASTRO

 

On July 4, I said that neither the United States nor Iran would give in: “one, prevented by the pride of the powerful, and the other because it has the capacity and the will to fight oppression, as we have seen so many times before in the history of mankind.” In nearly every war, one party wishes to avoid it and, sometimes, the two parties do.  This time it will happen although one of the parties does not wish it. That was the case of the two World Wars of 1914 and 1939, only 25 years one from the other. The carnage was awful in both wars, which would not have erupted had it not been for previous miscalculations. Both defended imperialist interests and believed they could accomplish their goals without the exceedingly high price finally paid.  In the case in question, one of the parties involved advocates absolutely fair national interests. The other pursues illegitimate and coarse material interests.  An analysis of every war fought throughout the recorded history of our species shows that one of the parties has pursued such goals.

            It’s absolutely wrong to entertain the illusion that this time such goals will be attained without the most dreadful of all wars. In one of the best articles ran by the Global Research website, on Thursday July 1, signed by Rick Rozoff, the author offers plenty of indisputable arguments, which every well-informed person should be aware of, about the intentions of the United States.       

According to the author, the United States believes that “…you can win if the adversary knows that it is vulnerable to a sudden and undetectable, appalling and devastating strike that it has no possibility to respond to or to defend from.”   “…a country with the aspiration of continuing as the only one in history with full military predominance all over the Earth, in the air, the sea and in space.”  “A country that keeps and expands military bases and troops as well as fighting-groups of aircraft carriers and strategic bombers on practically every latitude and longitude, and which does so on a record war budget after World War II amounting to 708 billion dollars next year.” It was also “…the first country to develop and use nuclear weapons…” “…the United States has deployed 1,550 nuclear warheads while keeping 2,200 in storage (or 3,500 according to some estimates) and a triad of ground, air and submarine delivering vehicles.”  “The non-nuclear arsenal used to neutralize and destroy the air and strategic defenses, and potentially all the major military forces of other countries, will consist in intercontinental ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and hypersonic bombers, and super-stealth strategic bombers that can avoid radar detection and the ground- and air-based defenses.” Rozoff enumerates the numerous press conferences, meetings and statements given in the past few months by the chiefs of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the senior executives of the US administration. He explains the NATO commitments and the reinforced cooperation with the Near East partners, meaning Israel in the first place. He says that “the US is also intensifying the space and cyber war programs with the potential to paralyze other nations’ military command and surveillance, control, communication, information and intelligence systems rendering them helpless except in the most basic tactical field.”

            He refers to the signing by the US and Russia, on April 8 this year, in Prague, of the new START Treaty, “which contains no restriction as to the actual or planned potential for a US conventional prompt global strike.”   He also reports a number of news on the issue and offers a most striking example of the US objectives.

            He indicates that “…the Defense Department is currently examining the entire range of technologies and systems for a Conventional Prompt Global Strike that could offer the president more credible and technically adequate options to tackle new and developing threats.”  I sustain the view that no president –and not even the most knowledgeable military chief– would have a minute to know what should be done if it were not already programmed in computers.   Rozoff proceeds undisturbed to relate what Global Security Network states in an analysis from Elaine Grossman under the title, The Cost of Testing a US Global Strike Missile Could Reach 500 Million Dollars.

            “The Obama administration has requested 239.9 billion dollars for research and development of the prompt global strike by US military services in fiscal year 2011…if the level of funds remains as anticipated for the coming years, by the end of fiscal year 2015 the Pentagon will have spent 2 billion dollars in prompt global strike, according to budget documents introduced in Congress last month.”  “A comparable terrifying scenario of the effects of a PGS, in this case of the sea version, was described three years ago in Popular Mechanics:   “An Ohio-type nuclear submarine emerges in the Pacific ready to execute the President’s order for launching. When the order comes, the submarine shoots to the sky a 65-tons Trident II missile. Within 2 minutes, the missile is flying at 22,000 km/h. Over the oceans and out of the atmosphere it speeds for thousands of kilometers.  “At the top of its parabola, in space, the four warheads of the Trident separate and start descending on the planet.   “The warheads flying at 21,000 km/h are full of tungsten rods with twice the resistance of steel.           “Once on target, the warheads explode and thousands of rods fall on the area, each carrying 12 times the destructive force of a .50 caliber bullet. Everything within 279 square meters of that whirling metal storm is annihilated.”

            Then Rozoff explains the statement made this year, on April 7, by the chief of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, General Leonid Ivashov, under the headline Obama’s Nuclear Surprise, where he refers to the US President remarks in Prague last year with the following words: “The existence of thousands of nuclear weapons is the most dangerous legacy of the Cold War,” and about the signature of the START II in that same city on April 8, the author points out:

            “In the history of the United States during the past century, there is not one example of sacrifice of the US elites for humanity or for the peoples of other countries. Would it be realistic to expect that the arrival of an African-American president to the White House might change the political philosophy of that nation traditionally aimed at achieving global domination? Those who believe that something like that could happen should try to understand why the US  –the country whose military budget exceeds that of all the other countries of the world combined–  continues spending huge amounts of money in war preparations.” “…the concept of Prompt Global Strike envisions a concentrated attack with the use of several thousand conventional precision weapons that within 2 to 4 hours would destroy the crucial infrastructure of the targeted country and force it to capitulate.”

            “The concept of Prompt Global Strike is aimed at ensuring the US monopoly in the military field and to widen the gap between that country and the rest of the world. In combination with the defensive deployment of missiles that should supposedly preserve the US from retaliatory attacks from Russia and China, the Prompt Global Strike initiative will turn Washington into a global dictator of the modern era.”  “Essentially, the new US nuclear doctrine is part of the new US security strategy that could more adequately be described as a strategy of complete impunity. The US increases its military budget, gives free rein to NATO as a global gendarme, and plans exercises in a real situation in Iran to prove the efficiency of the Prompt Global Strike initiative.”   In substance, Obama intends to mislead the world talking about a world free of nuclear weapons that would be replaced with other extremely destructive weapons designed to terrorize the leaders of other States and to accomplish the new strategy of complete impunity.

            The Yankees believe that Iran will soon surrender. It is expected that the European Union will inform about a package of its own sanctions to be signed on July 26.  The latest meeting of 5 plus 1 was held on July 2, after Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad stated that “his country will resume the talks by the end of August, with the participation of Brazil and Turkey.”

            A senior EU official warned that “neither Brazil nor Turkey will be invited to the talks, at least not at this point.” “Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki remarked that he is in favor of challenging international sanctions and proceeding with the upgrading of uranium.”  Since Tuesday July 5, and in view of the European insistence in promoting additional measures against Iran, this country has responded that it will not negotiate until September.

            Thus, with every passing day there are fewer possibilities to overcome the insurmountable obstacle.

            What will happen is so obvious that it can be exactly foreseen.   As for me, I should be self-critical since I made the mistake of affirming in my Reflections of June 27, that the conflict would break out on Thursday, Friday or Saturday at the latest. It was known that Israeli warships were moving toward their target alongside the Yankee naval forces. The order to search the Iranian merchant ships had been issued. However, I lost sight of a previous step: Iran’s continued refusal to allow the inspection of a merchant ship. In the analysis of the Security Council’s intricate language to impose sanctions on that country, I overlooked the detail of that previous step for the inspection order to be enforced. It was the only required step.

            The 60-days period assigned by the Security Council on June 9, to receive information on the implementation of the Resolution, will expire on August 8.

            But something more unfortunate still was happening. I was working with the latest material on the issue produced by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba and the document did not include two crucial paragraphs which were the last of said Resolution and which literally read: “It requests that, in a 90 days period, the Director General of the IAEA submits to the IAEA Board of Governors and, simultaneously, to the Security Council for its examination, a report indicating whether Iran has carried out the complete and sustained suspension of all the activities mentioned in Resolution 1737 (2006), and if it is implementing every measure demanded by the IAEA Board of Governors and observing the remaining provisions of Resolutions 1737, 1747, 1803 and the current Resolution;

            “It affirms that it will examine Iran’s actions in the light of the report mentioned in paragraph 36, which shall be submitted in a period of 90 days and that a) it will suspend the implementation of the measures provided that Iran suspends every activity related to upgrading and reprocessing, including research and development, and while the suspension stands, the IAEA will verify, to allow the celebration of negotiations in good faith to reach a prompt and mutually acceptable result; b) it will cease to implement the measures specified in paragraphs 3,4,5,6,7 and 12 of resolution 1737, as well as in paragraphs 2,4,5,6 and 7 of resolution 1747, in the paragraphs 3,5,7,8,9,10 and 11 of Resolution 1803 and in paragraphs 7,8,9,10,11,12, 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,21,22,23 and 24 of the current resolution, as soon as it determines, after receiving the report mentioned in the previous paragraph, that Iran has fully observed its obligations in compliance with the relevant Security Council resolutions and the requisites of the IAEA Board of Governors, a determination to be confirmed by the Board itself; and c) in case the report indicates that Iran has failed to abide by the provisions of Resolutions 1737, 1747, 1803 and the current resolution, it will adopt, in accordance with article  41 of chapter vii of the UN Charter, other appropriate measures to persuade Iran to do as provided in said resolutions and the requisites of the IAEA, and underlines that other decisions shall be adopted if such additional measures were necessary…”

            Apparently, after many hours of hard work making copies of every document, somebody at the Ministry fell asleep, but my eagerness to seek information and exchange views on these sensitive issues enabled me to detect the omission.  From my viewpoint, the United States and its NATO allies have said their last word. Two powerful states with authority and prestige failed to exercise their right of vetoing the perfidious UN Resolution.   It was the only possibility to gain time in order to find a formula to save peace, an objective that would have given them more authority to continue struggling for it.

            Today, everything hangs by a thread.

            My main purpose was to warn the international public of what was developing.

            I have done so partly watching what was happening as the political leader that I was for many long years facing the empire, its blockade and its unspeakable crimes. I’m not doing it for revenge.

            I do not hesitate to take the risk of compromising my modest moral authority.

            I shall continue writing Reflections on the subject. There will be others after this one to continue delving in the issue on July and August, unless an incident occurs that sets in motion the deadly weapons that are today aiming at each other.

               I have greatly enjoyed the final matches of the Football World Cup and the volleyball matches, where our brave team is leading its group in the World League.

           Fidel Castro Ruz

July 14, 2010 Posted by | African affairs, Blackseanews Agency, Diplomacy, Ecology, Economy, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Fidel Castro, Foreign policy, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, International Relation, Latin America, Leaders, Mass media, News, Open Letter, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Palestine, Politics, Russia, United States, Universities, World Cup | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

EIGHT PREDICTIONS FOR 2010 by Dr. Anton Caragea

EIGHT PREDICTIONS FOR  2010

It is in human nature deeply rooted the desire to see what is the future reserving for us. In the ancient times Sybille’s priestess in a cave near Rome interpreted the sacred Sibylline Book to see what the New Year will bring for Rome. Today the desire to know the future remain as strong as ever but the technique has certainly improved. Today geopolitics is here to help us guide our way in the next year. So what will bring to us 2010?  

The end of economic crisis?

Certainly something that everybody will like to see in 2010 is an end to the powerful economic crisis that is ripping havoc in international economy. Unfortunately 2010 is a decisive year in economy but with a double potential: to show the end of recession or to provoke another catastrophic fall. The economic dates are far away from a promising future. The US economy still has to face with the consequence of a real estate market that is suffocated by offers but also in lingering demand because of the strict policy applied by banks. Also financial sector proved his vulnerability to external pressure when the so called Dubai World bobble burst in November 2009 the New York Stock Exchange suffered a fall of 8 %. This vulnerability to foreign market will still be a major factor in influencing US economy recovery. Crushing stock markets in Asia or Middle East will sure happen in 2010 as the international banking system is slaw in offering collaterals and credit to pharaoh type projects that where starting before crisis and needs financing to be completed. These big projects are a sward with two directions, if they are not completed investor confidence will fall and as a result we will see depreciating values of stacks and bankruptcy if they are completed they will find a market already saturated and they will collapse.

A ghost is troubling the continent: Unemployment.

We all remember K. Marx beginning of Capital: a ghost is wondering the continent: the communism. Well now another ghost is showing here ugly face from New York to London: unemployment. The latest data from United States are crippling any hope of recovery, with 85.000 jobs lost only in December the economy of US is in severe shape and with more than 600.000 people relinquishing any hope for finding a new job the prospects seamed deem. In Europe the situation is even grey, German Federal Government admitted in November that the figures showing the German economy out of recession are exaggerated, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia face national bankruptcy and Spain, Italy, Ireland are fallowing closely and with national bankruptcy looming over Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria economy is still clear that Europe economy is continuing his downfall rapidly.

China and India: how long the miracle can last?

This year the only good news from world economy come from India and China that relied on a huge internal market (more than 1 billon each) to continue to grow in a down fall year. But this maneuver could not be sustained for 2010 economist predicts. Two are the main reasons: the grow of internal market demand could only be sustained by increase in wages that will affect both China and India competitiveness on external market. The second reason is that the internal market is not producing hard currency (dollars or Euros) that both India and China need for their developing economy but they only acquired more of their one currency with no value on international market. China and India continuous grow could only be sustained by cutting their economy from international market and this will be another catastrophe for international economy. In conclusion 2010 will be decisive in shaping the way for a recovery or for another crisis.

Democrats lose control.

In United States 2010 is an electoral year in which the democrats and republican will fight for control of Legislative. In this fight democrats enter on the lame duck position, in economy the financial support offered generously by B. Obama did not produced neither the necessary recovery neither the economic climate improvement, on international policy US troops are still embattled in Iraq, in Afghanistan a long war of guerrilla will claim his life toll in 2010 and Obama just make the monumental mistake in involving US military in a new conflict in Yemen. With none of his campaign pledges honored and a dire economic situation B. Obama is having little to show for, a situation that republican will get the best of it.

Israel – a new military adventure.

In Middle East the clouds of a new war are rapidly getting strength. In Israel an embattled Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu is seeing his cabinet position weaker and weaker by days go done. Israel Foreign Minister, Avigdor Lieberman has found himself excluded for Mediterranean Union projects talks as a result of Turkey veto and Arab country refusal to talk with him for his extremist views (the most inflammatory remark being the possibility of an attack on Aswan Dam in Egypt to disrupt Egypt economy). Inside Israel the dispute surrounding construction in occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem is further weakening his cabinet. In this case as Ehud Olmert has done in 2008 attacking Gaza or Menahem Begin invading Lebanon in 1982 is clear that the cabinet will try to avoid collapse by launching a new attach in the region. The best target is Gaza already weakened by the 2008 war and by 3 years of total blockade. An operation in Gaza could dismantle Hamas and provide a strategic victory with little human life cost so probably this will be the next target. But also there are voice that suggest that an attack on Lebanon infrastructure will be more beneficial for Israel that economically bothered by Lebanon tourism and investment opportunity competition in the region. But is probably that Israel will restrain his goal at more achievable level and a strike on Gaza seems the most likely scenario for 2010.                 

Pakistan: between civilian rule and military intervention.

Pakistan situation is dire: economy fall by 20% percent, unemployment is huge (more then 18%) and banking system is showing sign of collapse. With the army engaged in frontier battles at border with Afghanistan and with a continuous line of interior attacks the last things Pakistan needs is a political crisis. But exactly this is what 2010 will bring.  The embattled president Ali Zardari was forced to relinquish nuclear arms control to his prime minister and also to face a corruption charges that could lead to his downfall. The only civilian personality that could take his place is former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. But we must not forget that Mr. Sharif was deposed in a bloodless coup d’état in 1996 by the military and replaced with General Perwez Musharaf. Bringing him back to power will just mean that the history will be re-write. In any case if there will not be a political solution to Pakistan economic and political crisis the military will step in and this time with the accord of Washington that is eager to see stability at the front door of Pakistan at any cost in order to defeat the insurgency in Afghanistan. A general that will promise Washington tranquility at the southern border of Afghanistan will be acclaimed just as Perwez Musharaf was in 2001 after September attacks.

Latin America.

2010 also witness another tension fleering up: in Honduras a coup d’état mounted by military in convergence with right wing politicians toppled the legitimate president: Manuel Zelaya, crush any civilian resistance and despite international condemnation consolidated there regime in illegal elections. This became now a study case in United States and the region where many want to see left wing politicians as Evo Morales, Hugo Chavez and Rafael Correa overthrown. The Honduras success receipt will be surely repeated in another Latin America country this year. The question is where?

In Bolivia where a so called independent state in the center of the country has elected a parliament and a government and tries to overthrown Evo Morales in a civilian and military coup ? Or in Venezuela where Hugo Chavez is now under Columbian army pressure, irregular militia that crossed the border from Columbia to attack Venezuelan objectives on daily bases and where United States just opened up military bases?

Finally Rafael Correa of Ecuador is also on the black list; Ecuadorian military trained and grown by United States is also shooing sign that could change lines. Where will be CIA next revolution in Latin America?   Newsweek citing informed sources from CIA announced that Venezuela is the prime candidate for a „freedom” operation in Caribbean.  

China`s decision.

2010 will also be a decisive year for China that will be presented in the Security Council with sanctions proposal for Iran and Sudan. Both countries are strong allies of China, suppliers with gas and oil for increasing Chinese demands and both countries have a tension relationship with United States. China will have to decide; to give a go ahead to future sanctions could spell clearing the road for war. Everybody remembers in Security Council the 2002 resolution against Iraq that threatened the Baghdad regime with serious consequences if they don’t comply. United States decided that serious consequences could mean war and launch the attack on Iraq. A similar resolution today imposed on Teheran will be just a final step to war. China seemed to be aware of this and will have to choose between open opposition to United States agenda or temporary acceptance of US demands. The present strategy of China of temporization could no longer work in 2010.

This are just of the few decision that international policy and market decision makers will be confronted in this decisive year between peace and war, crisis or recovery , coup d’état or liberty. The answer will be decided in the next 12 month. We will live with the consequence.

Professor Anton Caragea PhD, MA, FINS

January 12, 2010 Posted by | Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economy, Environment, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Latin America, Leaders, Mass media, News, Open Letter, Politics, Religion, Russia, United States | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Syria: the key for peace in the Middle East by Professor Anton Caragea

01_ASSAD

In only three month the US Middle East envoy, George Mitchell made two visits to Damascus prompting the world attention to the new place of Syria in the region.  What is the new role of Syria in Barrack Obama vision of peace for the Middle East?

Syria: an astonishing survival.

In 2003 Syria seemed to be on the brink of the abyss: a US lead invasion of Iraq has turn up side down the region, G. Bush placed Syria on the list of state to be attacked , in Lebanon US sponsored the anti-Syrian opposition in the  hope that will further isolate Syria.  The death of Hafez al Assad in 2000 and the ascension to power of a young leader, Bashar al Assad made the situation even more fragile. In this difficult climate of isolation, war in Iraq, US pressures and sanctions Syria succeeded a remarkable transformation.

First step was made by bringing to power a generation of very effective , western educated leaders that transformed the country in just a few years: Dr.Mohsen Bilal,  a very efficient minister of  information that transformed the media landscape of the country offering open gates policy to private  newspapers and media channels  ,Wallid Al Moallem, Foreign Affairs Minister  of Syria succeed in promoting a new image of his country  tacking Syria out of the isolation  , Dr. Faissal Mqdad, vice-minister of Foreign Affairs supported this active and efficient diplomacy transforming Syria in a diplomatic Mecca in the last five years  supported in this efforts  by professional  diplomats like Walid Othman and other dedicated diplomats  and the charismatic  Mr. Saadala Agaa, Minister of Tourism, that made Syria a touristic power in the region busting countries revenues from tourism . This new team brought to power by President Bashar al Assad succeeded simultaneous in disengaging Syria from Lebanon, restoring diplomatic ties with Lebanon, sheltering 1, 5 million refugees from Iraq (a humanitarian crisis of never viewed scale), creating economic development of 5% percent per year, closing the border to Iraq for terrorist group and having an effective diplomacy in the region and developing connection with European Union. This mixture of powerful diplomacy, open society and strong democracy   made Syria a key for peace in the region. The assessment  of first nine year of Bashar al Assad in power is a strong  positive one.  

No peace without Syria.

An Arab diplomatic wisdom is saying that in Middle East could not be a war without Egypt and peace without Syria. The latest years offers a new meaning to this word of wisdom. Syria has proven to be a force for peace in the region and a fundamental actor: supporting Hezbollah in his resistance made Syria a part of the reconstruction of Lebanon security and peace and in may 2009 election when Hezbollah lost the Lebanese elections Syria supported the peaceful recognition of the election results and the creation of a unity government. Also the Syrian diplomatic campaign for Golan was a new success, even US announcing that Israel must relinquish the Golan Heights to rightful owner: Syria, in the peace processes. The open relation with Turkey, accepting Turkey mediation with Israel and the worming relation with Iraq and Golf States transformed Syria in the diplomatic rally point for France ( N. Sarcozy visit Damascus in 2008 , Bernard Kouchner , French foreign minister  in 2008 and 2009)   or for Qatar diplomacy. Even in 2008 Bashar al Assad was invited for 14 July celebration in France, an honor that only few have.    

Visit in Damascus for the eyes of Tel Aviv.

t1_mitchell

The US diplomatic overture to Syria is destined no doubt to exercise pressure on Israel. The US-Israel relation are suffering from a diplomatic cold after the Barrack Obama speech in Cairo and US decision to pressure Israel for  a halt in settlements construction and to re-open dialogue with Palestinian Authority.  Until now Israeli government choose to ignore the joint US-European Union- Russia pressure for a sincere dialogue with Palestine Authority and for halting the settlements in territories occupied after 1967 war. The US decision to send a new ambassador in Damascus and European Union rapprochement with Syria, all indicate that Israel could not hope indefinitely to go against international community wishes.

Now G. Mitchell goes to Damascus with a solid agenda: peace talks, returning Golan Heights to Syria, Damascus aid in stabilizing Iraq, removing Syria from US black list etc.  Especially Washington is interested in having Syrian backing for a swift resolution of Iraq conflict to relinquish the US troops station there.  US are conscience that Iraq will  descend in anarchy and havoc  after the US army pull out. US are trying to support a second : a Syrian model of open society, secular state, political equilibrium that will satisfy also Kurdish autonomy ambition and Sunni worries over a Shia controlled Iraq. This Syrian model in Iraq depends on Damascus support and is a valuable asset in US- Syria negotiation.  G. Mitchell is now in Damascus and already announced that what will be back.     

Now the question is if US has embarked only in a charmed offensive to worry Israel or really G. Mitchell found on the road to Damascus the light of a new policy for the region?

July 26, 2009 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics, Religion, Syria, Tourism, Travel, United States | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment