Centrul Diplomatic/Diplomatic Center

Centrul de Studii Politice si Diplomatie/ Center for Political Science and Diplomacy

Kazakh Khanate it is a great creation of the nomadic civilization say`s Kazakhstan Ambassador to Romania- Daulet Batrashev

Remarks

by Ambassador of Kazakhstan Daulet Batrashev on the Conference dedicated to the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the foundation of

the Kazakh Khanate (Statehood)

 

Sultan Zhanibek

Sultan Kerey

Sultans Zhanibek and Kerey-the founding fathers of Kazakh Khanate in Taraz-1465

October, 6, 2015

Targoviste city

Your Excellencies,

Dear friends!

 

This is a highly symbolic year for all citizens of my country.

It was exactly 550 years ago, in the center of the Eurasian continent, that our ancestors founded the Kazakh Khanate, a great creation of the nomadic civilization.

It was the starting point in the centuries-long nationhood of our people, which has found its fullest expression in the modern country named Kazakhstan.

As our head of the state, Nursultan Nazarbayev has written:  “Assessing Kazakh history, we must abandon the many stereotypes and instead understand properly what aspects of traditional Kazakh society have ‘imprinted’ themselves into our modern nation.”

It is this centuries-long period of the history of our country that laid the foundation not only of our modern state but also of our multi-vector foreign policy.

The Kazakh Khanate was not, of course, the first chapter in the history of the Kazakh people.

It was heir to the Great Steppe empires – the Turkic Kaganate (of the 6th to 8th centuries) and Eke Mongol Ulus (the Great Empire of Genghis Khan).

However, their origins and development can be traced much further back in time.

The ancient history of the Great Eurasian steppe zone is primarily a history of militant nomadic tribes.

The current territory of Kazakhstan were lands inhabited by Iranian-speaking and Turkic-speaking tribes: the Saka, Kangly, Usuns and Huns.

These ethnic groups had to permanently overcome the twists and turns of war, established diplomatic relations, concluded trade agreements, struck political and military alliances, to extend permanently the territorial framework for the future Kazakh state of today.

Even in the second half of the 5th century BC the man known as the Father of History, the Greek author Herodotus described the vast eastern country of Scythia, which would be also known as “the country of Saka people”.

Ancient Persian sources placed Saka, the population of Great Steppe, to the north of the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers.

The Saka civilization to the west was in contact with the Ancient Greeks and to the east with the Chinese.

Picture4

The Silk Road was crossing the heartland of Kazakh Khanate

To the south, the Saka’s nomadic country of Turan bordered Iran, the land of Indo-Aryan people.

It was this era when the Silk Road, the trade artery linking the early civilizations of East and West first began to emerge.

We also saw the rise of the first political entities within the present territory of Kazakhstan.

 Some historians cite Zoroastrianism’s sacred book of Avesta to point to a state named Kangkha in the midstream of the Syrdarya River around the 7th and 6th centuries BC.

According to ancient Chinese document, the Book of Han, roughly the same areas were occupied in the 2nd century BC by the State of Kangyui.

A successor to the political traditions of the Saka tribes, covering roughly the lands of modern-day southeastern Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan, was the State of Usun.

The arrival of the Great Empire of Huns signaled a milestone in the ethnic, cultural and political development of the people of this land.

In the middle of the 6th century, a decisive role in the development of language, culture and the worldview of the tribes inhabiting Kazakhstan was played by the Turk Empire or Turkic Kaganate (referred to in written sources as “Turkic El”), a  major power of the Early Middle Age.

 The first kagans’ policies were so in tune with the interests of all Turkic tribes that the limits of their authority quickly expanded as far as the Black Sea in the west and the Great Wall of China in the east.

Based on authoritative historical sources, President Nazarbayev has written, “The first Turkic Empire (552-603) was part of the system of political and economic relations between Byzantium, Iran and China.

Presidentele Nursultan Nazarbayev-creatorul Kazahstanului moderna-web

 President Nursultan Nazarbayev has succeeded in putting in the center of the modern Kazakhstan the values of history and tradition

 In its heyday, the Turkic Empire stretched from Manchuria to the Gulf of Kerch and from the Yenisei River to the Amu Darya. Therefore Turkic Kagans became the creators of the first Eurasian empire”.

According to both medieval and modern historians, the Turkic states were the direct successors of the Hun Empire.

The Turks, drawing on the achievements of western and eastern nations, created a distinctive culture with its own writing system, the so-called Orkhon-Yenisei runic script.

Being at the crossroads of different religions, such as Tengrism, Christianity, and Buddhism, the Turkic Kaganate also played a huge role in their subsequent development.

Following the collapse of the Turkic Kaganate, a series of new ethno-political unions of Turkic tribes emerged one after another.

In the area of the Irtysh River, the State of Kimaks appeared in the late 8th century.

Its fall was caused by a powerful wave of migration from the east and in the middle of the 9th century began the rise of Kypchaks.

Eventually they occupied much of Eurasia’s Great Steppe, with its borders  stretching from the Irtysh to the west as far as the Danube’s mouth, with the entire area labeled in Arabic and Persian sources of the period as Desht-i Kypchak (or the Kypchak Steppe).

In Russian sources, the Kypchaks were called Polovtsy and European ones named them Kumans or Kuns.

During the 12th and 13th centuries in Desht-i Kypchak there was a migration of large masses of the population.

The Kypchak confederation was a set of clans and tribes, brought together by both military and economic factors and from which the cultural and linguistic unity of the people gradually emerged.

The fundamental transformation of political and cultural values, economic and ethnic components of Eurasian political entities came in the 13th century after the unification of the entire nomadic Central Asian peoples under the Mongol Empire or Horde led by Genghis Khan.

This emerged following the Supreme congress of nomadic tribes or QURULTAYin 1206.

Ambassador Daulet Batrashev at Kazakhstan 550 years celebration

Kazakhstan Ambassador-Daulet Batrashev presents a detailed outline of the importance and significance of 550 years of Kazakhstan history

Renowned early 20th century Russian historian of Central Asia Vasily Bartold highlighted the deep connections between the Turkic Kaganate and Genghis Khan’s Empire.

According to him, the numerically dominant Turkic-speaking tribes gradually assimilated the core group of Mongolian-speaking warriors in central parts of the Eurasian plains to shape new state entities in the Great Steppe.

Another milestone event for the future of the Kazakh Khanate was the partition of the empire of Genghis Khan into several smaller informal states.

Among them, perhaps the largest was the Golden Horde (Altyn Orda) managed by the descendants of his eldest son Juchi.

The Golden Horde was the first centralized state in post-Mongol period that included most of the modern Kazakhstan’s territories.

Initially part of the Mongol Empire, it was under the control of Genghis Khan’s grandson, Batu (1242-1256), who behaved essentially as an independent ruler.

The key principles of nomadic statehood, which were laid in the foundation of the Golden Horde, were relevant for several other political entities, which developed from Genghis Khan’s descendants in the Great Steppe including the White Horde, the Abulkhair Khanate, Moghulistan, and eventually, the Kazakh Khanate.

Banner 550 years of Kazakhstan statehood10-webUnlike in the previous era, each of these had a number of important features as they emerged largely or exclusively on the territory of modern Kazakhstan.

They had similar political structures and far-reaching similarities in their economic and cultural development.

 In addition, they had common dynastic origin, sharing the tradition derived from Gengis Khan and his descendants of the exclusive right of authority.

In the broader historical context, the remarkable civilization of the Great Eurasian Steppe in the medieval period left its imprint on the development of many of its neighbors too including Iran, China, India, Byzantium, Russia and the countries of Eastern Europe.

It was on the basis of the nomadic civilization that the Kazakh people’s first formalized state emerged and on which the best traditions and accomplishments of political, economic, social and cultural development of the peoples inhabiting the lands of modern-day Kazakhstan are now based.

The new state’s very name – the Kazakh Khanate – confirmed the emergence of a new and hitherto unknown political entity in the 15th century’s historical arena.

The 16th century Central Asian historian Mirza Mohammed Haydar Dulati reported that the Kazakh Khanate was formed in autumn 1465 in the valleys of rivers Chu and Talas in the modern Zhambyl Region in South and South-Eastern Kazakhstan.

This followed the migration of numerous tribes led by the sultans Kerei and Zhanibek that rebelled against the despotic rule of Abulkhair Khan from the rival dynastic branch of Shaibanids.

With the consolidation of the new state, a centralized system of political authority was established in the Great Steppe.

Picture1

The fall of the Shaybanid dynasty cleared the path for the establishment of Kazakh Khanate and for three centuries of stability in Central Asia under the kazakh control. 

Legislative and executive powers were concentrated in the hands of a supreme ruler – Khan, who also performed the duties of a military commander.

The executive and legislative powers of Khan were regulated by such legislative acts of the Kazakhs as the QASYM KHANNYN QASQA ZHOLY (Kassym Khan’s Trodden Path), ESIM KHANNYN ESKI ZHOLY (Esim Khan’s Old Path), and ZHETI ZHARGY (Seven Laws).

These were official documents that regulated public policy and society’s functioning in general.

In turn, these laws were based on the centuries-old customs and traditions of the people.

These codes shaped the public administration of the Kazakh State and defined the concept of “Steppe Democracy.”

The Kazakh society had the right to openly regulate the complicated issues of domestic and foreign policy by electing judges – BIYS, who represented the people’s interests.

A special role in strengthening the Kazakh Khanate, promoting the idea of unity and spreading its message to the people as a whole was played by spiritual leaders – storytellers – ZHYRAUS and AKYNS, as well as musicians – KUISHI.

 Through their works, they raised issues such as the power and responsibility of the KHANS, BIYS, and BATYRS (knights) in securing the independence of the people.

They also drew attention to the importance of foreign policy and international relations, as well as educating the younger generation.

Founded in 1465, the Kazakh Khanate over two and a half centuries evolved.  Its economic, political and cultural policies developed and strengthened.

Timely changes helped strengthen the national spirit of the Kazakh people.

In the 16th century, the Kazakh Khanate was already known throughout much of Eurasia.

Picture3

According to the renowned Russian scholars Vladimir Dahl and Nikolay Baskakov, the ethnic name of “Kazakh” has Turkic origins.

In old Turkic sources the concept of “qazaqlyq” was used as a symbol of freedom and the free way of life.

As Baskakov noted, all interpretations of the word “Kazakh” are related to each other and have common roots, which mean an “independent person”.

He wrote, “the same meaning is associated with the name of Turkic nationality – Kazakhs – and it means a free and independent nomad”.

The early 16th century source known as Zayn ad-Din Vasifi’sBadai Al-wakai” labelled the lands ruled by Kazakh khans as “Kazakhstan”.

The map drawn in 1562 based on information collected by the English traveller and diplomat Anthony Jenkinson – the envoy in Moscow for the English Queens Mary and later Elizabeth the First named the vast land between “Tashkent” in the south and “Siberia” in the north as “Cassackia”.

The greatest political prominence and territorial expansion of the Kazakh Khanate was under the reigns of Khan Qasym who ruled between 1511 and 1523 and later Khan Khak-Nazar who ruled between 1538 and 1580.

During these periods, the Kazakh khans pursued active, independent domestic and foreign policies.

They ruled the lands between the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains, an area quite similar in its shape to the outline of modern Kazakhstan.

Already during this period, foreign policy was determined by a number of important directions, or vectors, which would find their continuation later.

It was during this time, for instance, that early diplomatic relations were established with Russia.

By the 17th century, the process of forming a single nation was generally complete.

As a result, all Turkic and non-Turkic tribes of Central Asia, ruled by the Kazakh Khanate, consolidated into an entity known as Kazakhs.

Picture9Ethnic traditions, customs, a common religion, language and culture were established.

The Kazakh Khanate’s rulers and their people fought hard to preserve the integrity of their national territory.

It was only through the unity of the Kazakh people that external aggression, civil strife and separatist tendencies of individual rulers could be overcome.

We must not also forget the Steppe diplomacy that successfully operated across the vast lands of Eurasia.

The Kazakh Khanate gradually but confidently emerged as an independent force in international relations.

The Kazakh State rulers carried out their foreign policy by diplomatic activity based on rules drawn up from their practical experiences of negotiations with representative of other states.

Only a nation with genes of peacefulness, good-neighbourliness and tolerance in its blood could have safeguarded such a vast territory through the art of diplomacy.

These have become the principles of a multi-vector policy, balance and pragmatism of contemporary Kazakh diplomacy.

The Kazakh Khanate’s history was, however, cut short by a number of negative factors.

In particular, military forces were depleted as a result of the bloody defensive wars of 17th and 18th centuries against a powerful nomadic Empire of the Jungars and the parallel expansion of a new dominant power in Eurasia – the Russian Empire.

It was the Russian Empire, which eventually incorporated lands of the Kazakh khanate – partly voluntarily, partly conquered by force of European weaponry, in the 130 years between 1731 and 1865.

Then followed a controversial, although not a totally negative, period of development under the rule of Russian Tsars.

In the early 20th century, when Russia faced a wave of revolutionary democratic activism, a fresh impetus for Kazakh statehood came from the activities of a new generation of Kazakh intellectuals.

This resulted in formation of the short-lived government of ALASH ORDA, with Alash being a synonym of the name Kazakh.

The All-Kazakh Congress, held in Orenburg city in 1917, created a territorial and national autonomy “Alash” embracing a number of regions with Kazakh population.

All executive powers were passed to the Temporary National Council of Alash Orda, which consisted of 25 members and was led by the eminent statesman, liberal politician, and true patriot Alikhan Bukeykhanov.

Assessing the significance of those events, President Nursultan Nazarbayev in his book “In the Stream of History” wrote that through the Government of Alash Orda: “The Kazakh nation obtained a real chance to reach its primary objective of recreating a national statehood.

However, the peaceful development of events was interrupted by a new crisis in the Russian society, which led to the establishment of a dictatorship of the Bolshevik party”.

Nevertheless, these new socio-political realities led to Kazakhstan having a chance to recapture some form of nationhood.

Milestone events in this process were the creation of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Republic in 1920 and of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936.

However, the truth is that autonomous Kazakh statehood existed only formally.

In reality, there was limited sovereignty and a significant dependence of its authorities first on the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later on the Soviet Union’s leadership.

This all changed with the independence that Kazakhstan gained in 1991, which saw a new stage of Kazakh statehood.

This heralded dynamic political, economic, social and cultural development.

People throughout the world are now aware of our nation’s achievements during this period.

They include the move of our nation’s capital, hosting the OSCE Summit in Astana and the Congresses of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, the triumph of our Olympic team in London 2012, and winning the right to host the EXPO 2017 in Astana.

In his 2012 State-of-the Nation Address, President Nazarbayev set out our country’s development strategy until 2050 to build on all we have achieved.

That is why the 550th anniversary of the first national state of the Kazakhs is so important to our country and people.

In September, with the participation of our President and many foreign visitors, there was a celebration of this significant historical milestone.

It will coincide with a major international conference, which will bring together scholars from around the world who study issues related to the history of the Kazakh khanate.

 

In October, the ancient city of Taraz in the south of our country will host further celebrations.

Taraz

Taraz-the capital city of Kazakh Khanate and the place of the 1465 proclamation of the first Kazakh state by Sultans Zhanibek and Kerey (reconstruction)

Taraz is the capital of the region where the actual events of the formation of the Kazakh khanate took place.

There, on October 8, Kazakhstan will hold a big celebration under the open sky to recreate the atmosphere of those historic events that happened on this land 550 years ago.

Your Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,

 

Thank you for listening to my attempt to explain the importance of the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate for our nation.

I believe this will help improve understanding of the history and identity of the people of Kazakhstan.

Let me end what has been a lengthier statement than usual.

Thank you for your attention. I would be delighted to answer any questions and to hear your opinions and comments on what I have said.

October 13, 2015 Posted by | Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Daulet Batrashev, Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Kazakhstan, Leaders, Mass media, News, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Politics, President Nursultan Nazarbaev, President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Religion | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Hanatul Kazah – o creație măreață a civilizației nomade de Daulet Batrashev, Ambasadorul Kazahstanului in Romania

Discursul

Excelenţei Sale Domnului Daulet Batrashev,

Ambasadorul Extraordinar şi Plenipotenţiar al Kazahstanului in Romania

In cadrul Conferinței dedicate aniversării a 550 de ani de la înființarea Hanatului Kazah 

 
Sultan ZhanibekSultan Kerey
Sultanii Zhanibek si Kerey sunt fondatorii Hanatului Kazah in Taraz in 1465

6 octombrie 2015

Târgoviște

 

Excelenţele Voastre!

Stimați prieteni!

 

Acesta este un an simbolic pentru toți concetățenii mei.

Acum exact 550 de ani în centrul continentului eurasiatic, strămoșii noștri au întemeiat Hanatul Kazah – o creație măreață a civilizației nomade.

Acesta a fost punctul de plecare în atingerea independenţei, un drum parcurs de secole de poporul nostru, care și-a găsit expresia cea mai deplină în țară modernă numita Kazahstan.

Așa cum a declarat seful statului Nursultan Nazarbaev: „In evaluarea istoriei kazahe, trebuie sa renunțam la nenumăratele stereotipuri, iar în schimb să înțelegem corect ce aspecte ale societății tradiționale kazahe s-au „imprimat” in ADN-ul națiunii noastre moderne.”

Această perioadă a istoriei țării noastre, ce a durat secole, a pus bazele nu doar a statului nostru modern, dar, de asemenea, a definit politica noastră externa echilibrata (multi-vector).

Bineînțeles ca Hanatul Kazah nu este primul capitol din istoria poporului kazah.

Acesta fiind succesorul marilor imperii ale stepei – Hanatul turcic (din secolele 6-8) și Eke Mongol Ulus (Imperiul Mongol al lui Genghis Khan).

Cu toate acestea, originile și amprentele lor pot fi regăsite cu mult timp înainte.

Istoria antică a zonei de stepă eurasiatică este în primul rând o istorie a triburilor nomade militante.

Pe teritoriul actualului Kazahstan locuiau triburi iraniene și turcice: sciți, kangli, usuni și huni.

Picture4

Drumul Matasii trecea prin inima Hanatului Kazah

Aceste grupuri etnice trebuiau sa facă față bătăliilor necontenite, sa stabilească relații diplomatice, sa încheie acorduri comerciale, sa creeze alianțe politice și militare, pentru a-si extinde în permanenţă aria de interes către noi teritorii ce vor forma statul kazah de azi.

Chiar și în a doua jumătate a secolului al 5-lea î.Hr. autorul grec Herodot, cunoscut sub numele „părintele istoriei”, a descris marea țara din est – Sciția, care era, de asemenea, cunoscuta sub numele de „țara sacanilor”.

Sursele persane antice plasează sacanii, populația Marii stepe, la nord de râurile Amudaria şi Sirdaria.

Civilizația Saka la vest intra în contact cu grecii antici, iar la est cu chinezii.

La sud, statul scitic nomad Turan învecina cu Iran, populata de indo-arieni.

Aceasta era acea epocă când se forma Drumul mătăsii – artera comercială care lega primele civilizații ale Estului și Vestului.

De asemenea, poate fi urmărita dezvoltarea primelor formațiuni politice pe teritoriul actual al Kazahstanului.

 Unii istorici citează cartea sfântă a zoroastrismului Avesta pentru a face referire la un stat numit Kanga situat pe malul râului Sirdaria in jurul  secolelor secolele 7 și 6 i.Hr.

Potrivit documentului antic chinez, Cartea dinastiei Han, aproximativ aceleași teritorii erau ocupate în secolul 2 î.Hr. de către statul Kangui.

Un succesor al tradițiilor politice ale triburilor Saka, care ocupa teritoriile sud-estice ale Kazahstanului modern și nordice ale Kîrgîzstanului modern, era statul Usun.

Formarea marelui imperiu al hunilor a reprezentat o noua etapa în ceea ce privește dezvoltarea etnica, culturala și politica a oamenilor ce populau aceste locuri.

La mijlocul secolului al 6-lea, un rol decisiv în dezvoltarea limbii, culturii și viziunii asupra lumii a triburilor care locuiau pe teritoriul Kazahstanului modern a jucat Imperiul Turcic sau Hanatul Turcic (menționat in sursele scrise ca „Turkic El”), o mare putere de la începutul Evului Mediu.

 Primele Politici al kaganilor corespundea intereselor tuturor triburilor turcice in așa o măsura încât autoritatea lor sa extins rapid în partea de vest spre Marea Neagră și în est spre Marele Zid Chinezesc.

Presidentele Nursultan Nazarbayev-creatorul Kazahstanului moderna-web

Presedintele Nursultan Nazarbayev-omul care a readus istoria si traditia in inima  stat kazah modern.

Bazându-se pe izvoarelor istorice de mare autoritate, președintele Nazarbayev a declarat: „Primul Imperiu turcic (552-603) a fost parte a unui sistem de relații politice și economice între Bizanț, Iran și China.

 În zilele sale de glorie, Imperiul turcic se întindea din Manciuria pana la Golful Kerci și de la Enisei pana la Amudaria. Prin urmare, Hanatele turcice stau la baza primului imperiu eurasiatic”.

Potrivit atât istoricilor medievali, cat și celor moderni, statele turcice erau succesorii direcți ale Imperiului Hun.

Turcii, bazându-se pe realizările națiunilor din vest si din est, au creat o cultură distinctă cu propriul său sistem de scriere, așa-numitul alfabet runic Orhon-Enisei.

Fiind la intersecția dintre mai multe religii, cum ar fi tengriismul, creștinismul și budismul, Hanatul turcic a jucat de asemenea un rol important în dezvoltarea lor ulterioară.

În urma destrămării Hanatului turcic, una după alta au apărut noi formațiuni etno-politice pe baza triburilor turcice.

În apropiere de râul Irtâș, la sfârșitul secolului 8 a apărut statul Kimaks.

Se considera ca principalul motiv pentru care acest stat s-a destrămat este un val puternic de migrație de la răsărit, iar la mijlocul secolului al 9-lea si-a început ascensiunea Kipchak.

În cele din urmă ei au ocupat o mare parte din marea stepa eurasiatica, hotarele sale întinzându-se de la Irtâș pana in vest la gura Dunării, întregul teritoriu fiind menționat in sursele în limbile arabă și persană din acea perioadă ca Desht-i Kypchak (sau Stepa Kipceak).

În surse rusești, grupul turcilor kipceak erau numiți Polovți, iar in cele europene Cumani sau Huni.

În secolele 12 și 13 din Stepa Kipceak au migrat mase mari de populație.

Ambassador Daulet Batrashev at Kazakhstan 550 years celebration

Ambasadorul Kazahstanului -Daulet Batrashev prezinta un extins raport istoric despre importanta si semnificatia celor 550 de ani de istorie a Kazahstanului.

Confederația Kipceak ara alcătuita dintr-un rând de clanuri și triburi, reuniți datorita unor factori economici și militari din care treptat a apărut unitatea culturală și lingvistică a poporului.

În secolul 13, entitățile politice eurasiatice au suferit o transformare fundamentală a valorilor politice și culturale, a componentelor economice și etnice, ca rezultat al unificării tuturor popoarelor nomade din Asia Centrală sub aripa Imperiului Mongol sau Hoardei conduse de Genghis Han.

Aceasta a apărut ca urmare a consiliul adunării generalilor Kurultai (consiliul bătrânilor) din 1206.

Renumitul istoric rus de la începutul secolului 20 si mare cunoscător al Asiei Centrale Vasili Bartold sublinia legăturile profunde dintre Hanatul turcic și Imperiul lui Genghis Khan.

Potrivit istoricului, triburile predominant vorbitoare de limbi turcice, fiind intr-un număr mare, au asimilat treptat grupul de bază de războinici vorbitori de mongolă, în părțile centrale ale câmpiei eurasiatice pentru a forma noi entități statale în Marea Stepa.

Un alt eveniment reper pentru viitorul Hanat kazah a fost destrămarea imperiului lui Genghis Khan în mai multe state informale.

Dintre acestea, poate cea mai mare a fost Hoarda de Aur (Altyn Orda) condusa de către urmașii celui mai mare fiu al lui Genghis Khan Juchi.

Hoarda de Aur a fost primul stat centralizat în perioada post-mongola, care a inclus cea mai mare parte a teritoriului Kazahstanului actual.

Inițial parte a Imperiului Mongol, a fost sub controlul nepotul lui Genghis Khan, Batu (1242-1256), care, în esență, era un conducător independent.

Principiile cheie ale statalității nomazilor, care au stat la baza Hoardei de Aur, au fost relevante pentru mai multe alte entități politice, care s-au format pe baza Imperiului lui Genghis Khan în Marea Stepa inclusiv Hoarda Alba, Hanatul de Abul Khair, Mogulistan, și în cele din urmă, Hanatul kazah.

Banner 550 years of Kazakhstan statehood10-web

Spre deosebire de epoca anterioară, fiecare dintre aceste formațiuni a avut o serie de caracteristici specifice importante, deoarece acestea au apărut în mare parte sau exclusiv pe teritoriul Kazahstanului modern.

Ele au avut structuri politice similare, iar dezvoltarea lor economică și culturală au prezentat asemănări izbitoare.

În plus, ele au avut origini dinastice comune, împărtășind tradiții lăsate drept moștenire de Genghis Khan și urmașii lui, deținând astfel dreptul exclusiv al autorității.

Într-un context istoric mai larg, civilizația remarcabilă a Marii stepe eurasiatice în perioada medievală a lăsat amprenta asupra dezvoltării multor dintre vecinii săi, inclusiv Iran, China, India, Bizanț, Rusia și țările din Europa de Est.

Aceasta a stat la baza civilizației nomade devenind ulterior primul stat formalizat al poporului kazah, apărut ca rezultat a celor mai bune tradiții și realizări in ceea ce privește dezvoltare politică, economică, socială și culturală a popoarelor care locuiau pe teritoriul Kazahstanului de astăzi.

Noul stat – Hanatul kazah – a consolidat apariția unei entități politice noi și până în prezent necunoscuta pe arena politica a secolului 15.

Istoricul din Asia Centrală Mirza Mohammed Haydar Dulati din secolul 16 notifica că Hanatul kazah a fost format în toamna anului 1465, în văile râurilor Chu și Talas, în regiunea actuala Jambâl în sudul și sud-estul Kazahstanului.

Acest lucru a urmat după o migrare numeroasa a triburilor conduse de sultanii Kerei și Janibek care s-au răzvrătit împotriva conducerii despotice a Hanatului Abul Khair din ramura dinastiei rivale a Șaibanizilor.

Picture1

Caderea Shaibanizilor a deschis drumul spre constituirea hanatului kazah si spre trei secole de stabilitate in Asia Centrala, sub semnul puterii kazahe.

Odată cu consolidarea noului stat, un sistem centralizat a autorității politice a fost stabilit în Marea Stepă.

Puterea legislativă și executivă su-a concentrat în mâinile unui conducător suprem – Hanul, care deținea si funcția de comandant militar.

Puterea executivă și legislativă ale Hanului erau reglementate de acte legislative ale kazahilor cum ar fi QASYM KHANNYN QASQA ZHOLY (Codul Hanului Kasâm), ESIM KHANNYN ESKI ZHOLY (Codul Hanului Esim) și ZHETI ZHARGY (Șapte Legi).

Acestea au fost documente oficiale care reglementau politica publică și funcționarea societății, în general.

La rândul său, aceste legi erau bazate pe obiceiurile și tradițiile vechi de sute de ani ale poporului.

Aceste coduri stabileau reguli legate administrația publică a statului kazah și au definit conceptul de „Stepa Democrației”.

Societatea kazaha avea dreptul de a se implica activ in problemele complexe ale politicii interne și externe prin alegerea judecătorilor – BIYS, care reprezentau interesele oamenilor.

Un rol deosebit in consolidarea Hanatului kazah, promovarea ideii de unitate si de răspândire a mesajului de popor ca un tot întreg au jucat liderii spirituali, povestitorii jârau (ZHYRAUS) si acânii (AKYNS), precum si muzicienii cuișî (KUISHI).

Prin activitatea lor, ei puteau pune in discuție subiecte cum ar fi puterea și responsabilitatea Hanului, Biys-ilor, și cavalerilor (BATYRS) cu scopul de a asigura independența oamenilor.

De asemenea, ei au atras atenția asupra importanței politicii externe și relațiilor internaționale, precum și educarea tinerei generații.

Înființat în 1465, Hanatul kazah a evoluat timp de peste două secole și jumătate. Politicile sale in domeniul economic, politic și cultural erau in dezvoltare si perfecționare continua.

Schimbările implementate în timp util au ajutat la consolidarea spiritului național al poporului kazah.

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În secolul al 16-lea, in mare, Hanatul kazah era deja cunoscut de toata Eurasia.

Potrivit renumiților savanți ruși Vladimir Dahl și Nikolay Baskakov, numele etnic „kazah” are origini turcice.

În surse turcice vechi conceptul de „qazaqlyq” era folosit ca un simbol al libertății și modului liber de viață.

După cum menționa Baskakov, toate interpretările ale cuvântului „kazah” sunt legate între ele și au rădăcini comune, însemnând o „persoană independentă”.

Savantul notifica ca „aceeași semnificație este asociată cu numele naționalității turcice – kazahii – și înseamnă nomad liber și independent”.

O sursa de la începutul secolului al 16-lea, cunoscuta sub numele „Badai Al-wakai” o lucrare a autorului Zayn ad-Din Vasifi marca teritoriile conduse de Hanul Kazah ca fiind „Kazahstan”.

Harta trasata in 1562 pe baza informațiilor colectate de călătorul și diplomatul englez Anthony Jenkinson, trimis la Moscova de către regina Maria a Angliei, și mai târziu de Elisabeta I, numea vastul teritoriu între „Tașkent”, în partea de sud și „Siberia”, în partea de nord, ca fiind „Cassackia”.

Cea mai mare greutate politică și extindere teritorială, Hanatul kazah a obținut pe timpul domniei Hanului Kasâm care a domnit între 1511 și 1523 și ulterior a Hanului Haknazar, care a domnit între 1538 și 1580.

În aceasta perioadă, hanii kazahi au urmărit o politica internă și externă activă si independentă.

Hanii conduceau ținuturile dintre Marea Caspică pana la Munții Altai, o zonă destul de asemănătoare în forma sa cu granițele actuale ale Kazahstanului.

Deja în această perioadă, politica externă era determinată de mai multe direcții importante, mai mulți vectori politici, care si-au găsit continuarea si dezvoltarea ulterior.

Aceasta era perioada, când, de exemplu, au fost stabilite relațiile diplomatice timpurii cu Rusia.

Astfel, în secolul al 17-lea, procesul de formare a unei singure națiuni, în mare, s-a finalizat.

Ca urmare, sub aripa Hanatului kazah toate triburile turcice și altele din Asia Centrală s-au consolidat într-o entitate cunoscută sub numele de kazahi.

Au fost stabilite tradiții etnice, obiceiuri, religie comună, limba și cultura.

Conducătorii Hanatului kazah și oamenii de rând au luptat din greu pentru a păstra integritatea teritoriului lor național.

Doar prin unitate, poporul kazah putea face fata agresiunilor externe, conflictelor civile și tendințelor separatiste ale unor conducători.

Nu trebuie să uităm nici diplomația Stepei care a funcționat cu succes pe teritoriile vaste din Eurasia.

Hanatul Kazah s-a format treptat, dar ca o forță independentă în relațiile internaționale.

Conducătorii statului Kazah abordau in politica externa si activitatea diplomatica un set de norme bazat pe experiența lor practica de negociere cu reprezentanții altor state.

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Numai o națiune pașnica, ce respecta principiile bunei vecinătăți și practica toleranța, putea sa-si protejeze teritoriul vast, arta diplomației fiind cheia succesului.

Acestea au devenit principiile unei politici multi-vector – echilibrul și pragmatismul diplomației kazahe contemporane.

Cu toate acestea, dezvoltarea Hanatului kazah a fost împiedicata de o serie de factori negativi.

În special, forțele militare au fost epuizate, ca urmare a războaielor sângeroase defensive din secolele 17 si 18 împotriva puternicului imperiu nomad al Jungarilor și extinderea în paralel a unei noi puteri dominante în Eurasia – Imperiul Rus.

În cele din urmă Imperiul Rus a fost acela care a înglobat teritoriile Hanatului kazah – parțial în mod voluntar, parțial cuceriți de forțele militare europene, timp de 130 de ani între 1731 și 1865.

Apoi a urmat o perioada controversata, cu toate că nu era in totalitate negativă, fiind o etapa de dezvoltare sub conducerea țarilor ruși.

La începutul secolului 20, atunci când Rusia se confrunta cu un val de activism democratic revoluționar, noile generații de intelectuali din Kazahstan au considerat ca aceste evenimente pot fi un nou impuls pentru statalitatea kazahă.

Acest lucru a dus la formarea guvernului de scurtă durată Alaș Orda (ALASH ORDA), Alaș fiind un sinonim al cuvântului kazah.

Congresul general al kazahilor a avut loc în orașul Orenburg în 1917, iar ca rezultat s-a luat decizia creării unei autonomii teritoriale și naționale „Alaș” formata dintr-un număr de regiuni populate de kazahi.

Puterea executiva aparținea Consiliului Național temporar al lui Alaș Orda, care era format din 25 de membri și era condus de omul de stat eminent, politician liberal, și adevărat patriot Alihan Bukeihanov.

Evaluând importanta acestor evenimente, președintele Nursultan Nazarbayev, în cartea sa „În fluxul istoriei”, a menționat că, prin guvernul Alaș Orda: „Națiunea kazahă obținut o șansă reală de a-si atinge obiectivul său principal – acela de a recrea o statalitate națională.

Cu toate acestea, dezvoltarea pașnică a evenimentelor a fost întreruptă de o nouă criză în societatea rusă, care a dus la instaurarea dictaturii partidului bolșevic”.

Totuși, aceste noi realități socio-politice i-au oferit Kazahstanului șansa de a redobândi unele aspecte ce reprezintă o națiune.

Evenimentele de cumpăna în acest proces au fost crearea Republicii Autonome Sovietice Kazahstan în 1920 și a Republicii Sovietice Socialiste Kazahstan în 1936.

Cu toate acestea, adevărul este că statalitatea kazaha autonoma exista doar in mod formal.

În realitate, era vorba de o suveranitate limitată și o dependență semnificativă fata de autoritățile centrale, la început de Republica Sovietică Socialistă Federativă Rusă, ulterior de liderii Uniunii Sovietice.

Lucrurile s-au schimbat odată cu independenta Kazahstanului câștigata în 1991, aceasta fiind o noua etapa in istoria formarii statalității kazahe.

Acest eveniment a avut o contribuție majora in dezvoltarea dinamică a vieții politice, economice, sociale și culturale.

Oamenii din întreaga lume apreciază succesele atinse de poporul kazah in aceasta perioada.

Printre realizări putem aminti mutarea capitalei Kazahstanului, găzduirea Summit-ului OSCE de la Astana și Congresul al liderilor lumii și religiilor tradiționale, succesul echipei naționale la Olimpiada din Londra din 2012, și câștigarea dreptului de a găzdui EXPO 2017 in Astana.

În discursul sau către națiune din 2012, președintele Nazarbayev a stabilit strategia de dezvoltare a țării noastre până în 2050 care se bazează pe toate realizările de pana acum.

Acesta este motivul pentru care 550 de ani de la formarea primului stat național al kazahilor este atât de important pentru țara și poporul nostru.

În septembrie, a avut loc celebrarea acestui eveniment de răscruce din istoria noastră la care a participat președintele Kazahstanului și numeroși invitați străini.

Acest eveniment a coincis cu o conferință internațională majoră, care va reuni oamenii de știință din întreaga lume, care studiază îndeaproape istoria Hanatului kazah.

Taraz

Orasul Taraz-capitala Hanatului Kazah (reconstructie)

În octombrie, orașul antic Taraz în partea de sud a țării va găzdui alte festivități dedicate acestei sărbători.

Taraz este capitala regiunii în care a avut loc evenimentele ce au pus bazele Hanatului kazah.

Aici pe 8 octombrie, Kazahstan va organiza o sărbătoare mare in aer liber pentru a recrea atmosfera acelor evenimente istorice care au avut loc în urmă cu 550 de ani.

Excelențele Voastre, Doamnelor și Domnilor,

 

Vă mulțumesc pentru atenția oferita încercării mele de a explica importanța celebrării a 550 de ani de la formarea Hanatului kazah pentru națiunea noastră.

Cred că acest lucru va ajuta la îmbunătățirea înțelegerii istoriei și identității poporului Kazah.

Permiteți-mi sa-mi închei discursul care a fost mai lung ca de obicei.

Vă mulțumesc pentru atenție. Voi fi încântat să răspund la orice întrebări și să aud opiniile și comentariile dumneavoastră cu privire la cele prezentate de mine.

October 13, 2015 Posted by | Astana, Blackseanews Agency, Daulet Batrashev, Diplomatie, Educatie, Istorie, Kazahstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Relatii Internationale, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, Universitati | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

KAZAKHSTAN AMBASSADOR OFFICIAL GUEST AT INDAGRA 2014

On 1st of November 2014, the President General-Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania – Professor Dr. Anton Caragea had made an on the spot information visit to Agricultural Exhibition INDAGRA 2014.

Official visit to INDAGRA 2014

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea and Kazakhstan Ambassador Daulet Batrashev inspecting agricultural machineries at the Agricultural Fair-INDAGRA 2014

 

This year has brought about a plus of prestige, luster and representativeness for INDAGRA agricultural fair, had stated Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, clearly enthusiastic about the presence of a record number of countries to the event. At the venue where presented firms from 22 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Korea (South), Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Great Britain, Moldavia, Holland, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Turkey, Hungary etc.

 

In order to offer new opportunities for Romanian economy Professor Dr. Anton Caragea had invited the Ambassador of Kazakhstan-Daulet Batrashev to accompany him during his visit to agricultural exhibition.

Kazakhstan is enjoying the greatest agricultural potential amongst the Central Asia region and can widely benefit from Romanian agricultural experience, from Romanian products and our state of the art technology and no other place is better illustrating thus enormous potential of our country than INDAGRA 2014 stated Professor Dr. Anton Caragea.

The visit started with a stopover at CASA PANCIU (HOUSE OF PANCIU)-the diplomatic partner and creator of DIPLOMATIC WINE OF ROMANIA for 2014-the best Romanian wine.

Ambassador Daulet Batrashev at INDAGRA 2014

Tasting Romanian Diplomatic Wine for 2014 (from right to left): H.E. Kazakhstan Ambassador Daulet Batrashev, IRUCE PDG-Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Mrs. Ioana Tudor-CASA PANCIU (HOUSE OF PANCIU) Director, CASA PANCIU (HOUSE OF PANCIU) somellier, Mr. Marian Nistor-HORECA developer for CASA PANCIU (HOUSE OF PANCIU).

At CASA PANCIU, Professor Dr. Anton Caragea and his guests could appreciate the new wines of 2014 harvest such as: Chardonnay variety (dry), Cabernet Sauvignon transformed onto white wine (dry) – the star of this year winery  production, Aligote (medium-dry), Şarba-Romanian specific variety (medium-dry), Rose made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes) – dry, Cabernet Sauvignon & Feteasca Neagra 2012 (dry), as well a perfect Romanian variety as Feteasca Neagra(Black Girl) 2013.

 

Kazakhstan Ambassador had tasted the well-known and appreciated wines from HOUSE OF PANCIU and was in owe at the long-lasting taste, aroma and savory of the Vrancea wines, that are clearly surpassing celebrated wines from Italy or France and must be presented on the Kazakhstan market, where will find favor with the lovers and connoisseurs of fine and quality wines.

The visit had continued to the small and medium producers from Transylvania region and horse breeding stable from Sibiu County, where Professor Dr. Anton Caragea had highly appreciated the horses exhibited and Kazakhstan Ambassador had also related with his country traditions in the field of husbandry, horse farms and stables.

The delegation moved on and visited the ship farms from Marginimea Sibiului region where all present where interested in observing traditional milking and cheese production techniques from the region.

 

President Anton Caragea-INDAGRA2014

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea admiring the horse show put in place at INDAGRA 2014 Agricultural Fair.

 

INDAGRA 2014 had clearly marked a perfect opportunity for Romanian diplomacy to highlight for the world the high quality of Romanian food and agricultural industry products and to get the limelight for the traditional recipes that are transforming the Romanian food products in true symbols of perfect quality and taste, perfect for export.

The remarkable Romanian wine from HOUSE OF PANCIU-CASA PANCIU had already conquered the world and it is now the time that more and more agricultural products of our country to be promoted and recognized as veritable ambassadors of our nation in the world had concluded the President General Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation.

November 10, 2014 Posted by | Astana, BEST ROMANIAN WINE, Blackseanews Agency, Diplomacy, DISCOVER ROMANIA, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economy, Environment, European Council on Tourism and Trade, Foreign policy, HOUSE OF PANCIU, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, International Relation, Kazahstan, Kazakhstan, Leaders, Mass media, Orient, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Romanian economy, Tourism, Travel, Universities | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

AMBASADORUL KAZAHSTANULUI-OASPETE DE MARCA LA INDAGRA 2014

In data de 1 noiembrie 2014, Profesor. Dr. Anton Caragea, Presedintele Director General al Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica a efectuat o vizita de informare la Expozitia de produse agricole: INDAGRA 2014.

 

Official visit to INDAGRA 2014

Profesor Dr. Anton Caragea si Ambasadorul Kazahstanului-Daulet Batrashev inspecteaza masinile agricole de la INDAGRA

Anul acesta a insemnat un plus de prestigiu si reprezentativitate pentru expozitia INDAGRA, a declarat Prof. Dr. Anton Caragea, vizibil incantat de prezenta la aceasta editie a peste 22 de tari printre care: Austria, Belgia, Bulgaria, China, Coreea (Sud), Danemarca, Franta, Germania, Grecia, India, Italia, Lituania, Luxembourg, Marea Britanie, Moldova, Olanda, Polonia, Romania, Serbia, Spania, Turcia, Ungaria etc.

 

In plus pentru a putea admira realizarile sectorului agricol romanesc, in cadrul vizitei Prof. Dr. Anton Caragea l-a invitat si pe Ambasadorul Kazahstanului-Daulet Batrashev.

Kazahstanul are cel mai mare potential agricol dintre tarile Asiei Centrale si poate beneficia de experienta romaneasca in domeniu, de produsele din Romania, de tehnologia agricola de varf din tara noastra si niciun alt loc nu ilustreaza mai clar enormul potential al Romaniei in acest domeniu decat INDAGRA, a declarat Prof. Dr. Anton Caragea.

 

Ambassador Daulet Batrashev at INDAGRA 2014

Degustarea Vinului Diplomatilor-foto ( de la dreapta la stanga): Ambasadorul Kazahstanului-Daulet Batrashev, Prof.Dr. Anton Caragea PDG-IRICE,D-na Ileana Tudor-director CASA PANCIU, degustator CASA PANCIU si Marian Nistor-devoltator HORECA.

Vizita a inceput cu deplasarea la standul Casei Panciu- partenerul diplomatic oficial si creatoarea Vinului Diplomatilor pentru 2014-cel mai bun vin al Romaniei.

La standul Casa Panciu, Prof. Dr. Anton Caragea si delegatia sa au putut gusta noutatile de marca ale productiei de vinuri a anului 2014 precum: sortimentele Chardonnay ( sec), Cabernet Sauvignon vinificat în alb (sec) – vedeta gamei, Aligote ( demisec), Şarba (demisec), Rose din Cabernet Sauvignon) – sec, Cabernet Sauvignon & Feteasca Neagra 2012 (sec), precum si Feteasca Neagra 2013.

Ambasadorul Kazahstanului a degustat creatiile de marca ale Casei Panciu, fiind extrem de incantat de savoarea, gustul persistent si aroma vinului din Vrancea, ce depaseste vinuri renumite din Italia si din Franta si trebuie prezentate pe piata din Kazahstan, unde vor cuceri cunoscatorii si iubitorii de bauturi fine si de calitate.

Vizita a continuat apoi la standurile micilor producatori din zona Ardealului si la crescatorii de cai de rasa din zona Sibiului, unde Prof. Dr. Anton Caragea a admirat exemplarele cabaline deosebite si unde Ambasadorul Kazahstanului a regasit valori traditionale legate de cultura cailor si apoi o vizita la stana de oi din Marginimea Sibiului, care a uimit pe toti cei prezenti prin frumusetea exemplarelor si tehnologia traditionala de fabricatie a branzeturilor specifice.

 

President Anton Caragea-INDAGRA2014

Prof.Dr. Anton Caragea PDG-IRICE admira caii prezentati la expozitie.

 

INDAGRA 2014 a reprezentat o perfecta ocazie pentru diplomatia romanesca de a prezenta, pentru intreaga lume, inalta calitate a produselor agricole din tara noastra. In special retetele traditionale, ce fac din produsele romanesti adevarate etaloane de gust si perfecta calitate, relevante pentru export.

 

Exceptionalul vin romanesc de la Casa Panciu, a cucerit deja intreaga lume, iar acum este timpul si pentru alte produse agricole sa fie cunoscute si sa reprezinte tara noastra in intreaga lume, a concluzionat Presedintele Director-General al Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica.

November 10, 2014 Posted by | Astana, Blackseanews Agency, CASA PANCIU, Diplomatie, DISCOVER ROMANIA, Economia Romaniei, Educatie, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, Kazahstan, Kazakhstan, Kazakstan, Mass media, Politica externa a Romaniei, Relatii Internationale, Turism, Turism Vitivinicol, Universitati, VINUL DIPLOMATILOR | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

EXOTIQUE-THE MOST CELEBRATED BRAND OF ART AND FURNITURE CELEBRATES 10 YEARS OF EXISTANCE

On 23 October 2013, EXOTIQUE, the leading art and furniture provider importer from Far East to Romania will celebrate his ten years in existence.

During this period, EXOTIQUE has managed to present to Romanian public in premiere the art and crafts of Indonesia, Malaysia, Korea, Laos and traditions of China and India, being in the vanguard of interior design and art in Romania.

President Caragea and Mrs.Pusa HackProfessor Dr. Anton Caragea is presented with a morocco ceremonial sword by Mrs. Pusa Hack for continuing defense of Romanian image abroad. 

The EXOTIQUE success in educating the consumer and in opening new cultural horizons by bringing the magic of Asia in the houses of many Romanians was acknowledged in this period by receiving the title of royal supplier for Romanian Royal Court and official partner of Romanian public diplomacy for 2010.

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, Director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, had accepted to give his high patronage to the event of 23 October 2013. This decision comes in appreciation of the role played by EXOTIQUE and Mrs. Pusa Hack in promoting the cultural relations between Romania and Extreme Orient, in presenting the Asian cultural magic and in promoting in Romania the image of country`s such as: India, Korea, China, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines etc.

Poze mobilier-webLuxury and style: trade mark for EXOTIQUE

On 20 October 2013, Mrs. Pusa Hack, EXOTIQUE brand owner and Professor Dr. Anton Caragea visited the EXOTIQUE art showroom, where the ten year party anniversary will be held and analyzed the unique products that will be displayed on this occasion.

Mrs. Pusa Hack took the opportunity to present the highlights of 2014 furniture fashion trends, based on industrial style.

poze interior-web Interior style of opulence by EXOTIQUE

The industrial style, the trend of the year, combines metal and natural wood and is functioning perfect in traditional or contemporary settings.

Unique art objects that are combining old sheesham wood in furniture with camel skin and textile decorated with old brands (army, industrial, French empire or English style etc.) are also part of the trend.

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea had admired the exhibition art crafts, the high class and extraordinary taste and value of the objects presented by Mrs. Pusa Hack stating that: today EXOTIQUE is an art and furniture trend setter and that Mrs. Pusa Hack deserves to be recognized as a true ambassador of dialogue of civilizations by putting together in an harmonious dialogue the art and civilization of the entire Asian continent.

poze interior1-webMaking your house a palace with EXOTIQUE

The event of 23 October 2013 will herald the EXOTIQUE style based on beauty and high class and will benefit from the presence of members of Romanian Parliament and Government and of diplomatic corps accredited in Romania in a moment that will combine a full open day with surprise visits, products sampling, oriental art presentations and a spectacular raffle.

October 20, 2013 Posted by | Diplomacy, Economy, Foreign policy, History, Informations, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, News, Politics | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

EXOTIQUE-CEL MAI CELEBRU BRAND DE MOBILIER SI ARTA IMPLINESTE 10 ANI

Succesul EXOTIQUE, in educarea consumatorului in spiritul bunului gust, celebrat in data de 23 octombrie 2013, a fost rasplatit cu titlul de furnizor al Casei Regale a Romaniei si cu titlul de partener oficial al diplomatiei publice pentru 2010.

 

In data de 23 octombrie 2013 EXOTIQUE, cel mai mare importator de obiecte de arta si mobilier oriental din Romania, sarbatoreste 10 ani de existenta.

In acesti zece ani, EXOTIQUE a reusit sa aduca, pentru prima data in Romania, mobilier si obiecte de arta si artizanat indonezian, malaezian, coreean, traditional-chinezesc si indian, fiind un deschizator de drumuri in domeniul designului interior de calitate.

President Caragea and Mrs.Pusa HackProfesorului Dr. Anton Caragea i se prezinta in dar o sabie ceremoniala marocana de la Pusa Hack pentru a continua sa apere imaginea Romaniei in lume.

Succesul EXOTIQUE, in educarea consumatorului si deschiderea de noi orizonturi culturale si pentru aducerea magiei Asiei in casele romanilor, a fost rasplatit cu titlul de furnizor al Casei Regale a Romaniei si cu titlul de partener oficial al diplomatiei publice pentru 2010.

Profesor Dr. Anton Caragea, Directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, a acceptat sa ofere Inaltul sau patronaj evenimentului din data de 23 octombrie 2013. Aceasta decizie a venit drept apreciere pentru rolul deosebit al EXOTIQUE si al proprietarului acestui brand, d-na Pusa Hack, in promovarea relatiilor dintre Romania si zona Extremului Orient, in prezentarea magiei specific asiatice si a sustinerii imaginii unor tari precum India, Coreea, China, Laos, Malaezia, Filipine etc.

Poze mobilier-webMagia EXOTIQUE, magia bunului gust. 

In data de 20 octombrie, d-na Pusa Hack, proprietara brandului EXOTIQUE si Prof.Dr.Anton Caragea au vizitat showroom-u l EXOTIQUE, in care va avea loc aniversarea a zece ani de activitate si au analizat exponatele unicat ce vor fi prezentate cu aceasta ocazie.

Totodata d-na Pusa Hack a prezentat in premiera punctele forte ale expozitiei si tendintele pentru anul 2014, bazate pe stilul industrial.

poze interior-web

Mixt de stil si extravaganta: marca EXOTIQUE.

Stilul industrial, moda anulului 2014, imbina metalul cu lemnul natural si functioneaza perfect atat in decoruri traditionale cat si contemporane.

Obiecte de arta unice ce combina lemnul de sheesham vechi din hambare, lambriuri sau podele, pielea de camila si materialele textile decorate cu vechi tipare (militare, industrial, stil francez sau englez)  sunt, de asemenea, parte din acest trend.

Profesor Dr. Anton Caragea a admirat exponatele expozitiei, bunul gust al organizarii si valoarea extraordinara a obiectelor aduse de d-na Pusa Hack, declarand ca : astazi EXOTIQUE stabileste moda si trendurile  in designul interior, iar d-na Pusa Hack ar merita sa fie recunoscuta ca un adevarat ambasador al dialogului civilizatiilor, aducand in jurul ei intr-un dialog al armoniei arta si civilizatia intregului continent asiatic.

poze interior1-web Stil si opulenta la EXOTIQUE.

Evenimentul din 23 octombrie 2013 va purta marca EXOTIQUE, adica a bunului gust si al frumusetii si va beneficia de prezenta membrilor Parlamentului si Guvernului Romaniei, precum si a corpului diplomatic acreditat in Romania intr-un moment ce va imbina o zi intreaga a portilor deschise cu tombole, vizite supriza, degustari de produse si prezentari de arta orientala.

October 20, 2013 Posted by | Blackseanews Agency, Diplomatie, Economia Romaniei, Educatie, European Council on International Relations, European Council on tourism and TradeT, Informatii despre Coreea, Information on Korea, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica, International Relation, Mass media, News, Orient, Oriental Art, Politica externa a Romaniei, Relatii Internationale, Turism, UNESCO Heritage List, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Global Compact, Universitati | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

G-20 A Colossal Madhouse and Failure by Fidel Castro

A Colossal Madhouse. This is what the G-20 meeting that started yesterday in Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea, has been turned into. Many readers, saturated with acronyms, may wonder: What is the G-20? This is one of the many miscreations concocted by the most powerful empire and its allies, who also created the G-7: the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. Later on they decided to admit Russia in a club that was then called the G-8. Afterwards they condescended to admit 5 important emerging countries: China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa. Then the group membership increased after the inclusion of the member countries of the OECD –another acronym-, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Australia, the Republic of Korea and Turkey. The group was also joined by Saudi Arabia, Argentina and Indonesia, and they all summed up 19. The twentieth member of the G-20 was no other than the European Union. As from this year, 2010, one country, Spain, holds the peculiar category of “permanent guest.” Another important international high level meeting is taking place almost simultaneously in Japan: the APEC meeting. If patient readers bother to add to the former group the following countries: Malaysia, Brunei, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong,  Taiwan, Papua-New Guinea, Chile, Peru and Vietnam -all of them with a significant trade volume, with coasts washed by the Pacific Ocean waters- the result would be what is called the APEC: the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum, and with that the entire jigsaw puzzle is completed. They would only need a map, but a laptop could perfectly provide that. At such international events crucial international economic and financial issues are discussed. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, with decision-making powers when it comes to financial matters, have their own master: the United States. It is important to remember that after the Second World War, the US industry and agriculture remained intact; those in Western Europe were totally destroyed, with the exceptions of Switzerland and Sweden. The USSR had been materially devastated and scored huge material losses that surpassed the figure of 25 million persons. Japan was defeated, in ruins and occupied. Around 80 per cent of the world’s gold reserves were sent to the United States. In a remote, though spacious and comfortable hotel at Bretton Woods, a small community of the US north eastern state of New Hampshire, the Monetary and Financial Conference of the recently created United Nations Organization was held from July 1st to 22 of 1944. The United States was granted the exceptional privilege of turning its paper money into an international hard currency pegged to a gold standard mechanism fixed at 35 US dollars per one Troy ounce of gold. Since the overwhelming majority of countries keep their foreign exchange reserves in the US banks -which is the same as granting a significant loan to the richest country in the world-, the gold pattern mechanism established at least a ceiling for the unrestricted issuance of paper money. This was at least some sort of guarantee on the value of the reserves that countries kept in US banks. Based on that enormous privilege -and for as long as the issuance of paper money was limited by the gold standard mechanism- that powerful country continued to increase its control over the planet’s wealth. The military adventures of the United States in alliance with the former colonial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands and the recently created West Germany, led that country into other military adventures and wars that plunged the monetary system established at Bretton Woods into a crisis. At the time of the genocidal war in Vietnam, a country against which the US was at the verge of using nuclear weapons, the US President took the shameless and unilateral decision of suspending the dollar’s gold pattern. Ever since then, there have been no limits to the issuance of paper money. That privilege was so much overused that the value of the Troy ounce of gold went from 35 dollars to figures way above 1 400 dollars, that is, no less than 40 times the value it kept for 27 years until 1971, when Richard Nixon took such nefarious decision. The worst thing about the present economic crisis that affects the American society today is that former anti-crisis measures applied at different moments in the history of the US imperialist capitalist system have not helped it now to resume its usual pace. The US is wracked by a national debt close to 14 billion dollars -that is, as much as the US GDP- and the fiscal deficit remains unchanged. The sky-rocketing banks bailout loans and interest rates almost equal to zero have hardly decreased unemployment to figures below 10 per cent. The number of households whose houses are being closed out have barely decreased either. Its gigantic defense budgets which are much higher than those of the rest of the world – and what is worse, those devoted to the war- have continued to grow. The US President, who was elected hardly two years ago by one of the traditional parties, has been dealt the biggest defeat ever remembered in the last three fourths of a century. Such a reaction is a combination of frustration and racism. The US economist and writer William K. Black wrote a memorable phrase: “The best way to rob a bank is to own one”. The most reactionary sectors in the United States are sharpening their teeth and have appropriated an idea that would be the antithesis of the one expressed by the Bolsheviks in October of 1917: “All power to the US extreme right.” Seemingly, the US government, with its traditional anti-crisis measures, resorted to another desperate decision: the Federal Reserve announced it would buy 600 billion US dollars before the G-20 meeting. On Wednesday November 10, one of the most important US news agencies reported that “President Obama had arrived in South Korea to attend meetings of the world’s top 20 economic powers.” “Tensions over currencies and trade gaps have simmered ahead of the summit following a decision by the U.S. to flood its sluggish economy with $600 billion in cash that has alarmed leaders around the globe. “Obama has defended the move by the U.S. Federal Reserve.” On November 11, the same agency reported to the world’s public opinion the following: “A strong sense of pessimism shrouded the start of an economic summit of rich and emerging economies Thursday […] with world leaders arriving in Seoul sharply divided over currency and trade policies. “Established in 1999 and raised to summit level two years ago, the G-20 has— encompassing rich nations such as Germany and the U.S. as well as emerging giants such as China and Brazil — has become the centerpiece of international efforts to revive the global economy and prevent future financial meltdowns…” “Failure in Seoul could have severe consequences. The risk is that countries would try to keep their currencies artificially low to give their exporters a competitive edge in global markets. That could lead to a destructive trade war. “Countries might throw up barriers to imports — a repeat of policies that worsened the Great Depression. There are countries, such as the United States, whose top priority would be “to get China to allow its currency rise” against other currencies that would allow for a reduction of the huge trading surplus of the Asian giant with Washington, since it will make Chinese exports to be more expensive and US imports cheaper. “There are those which irate over U.S. Federal Reserve plans to pump $600 billion of new money into the sluggish American economy”. They see this measure as a selfish move to fill markets with dollars, thus devaluing that currency and giving US exporters and unfair price edge. “The G-20 countries […] are finding little common ground on the most vexing problem: What to do about a global economy that depends on huge U.S. trade deficits with China, Germany and Japan?” “Brazil’s president, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, warned that the world would go “bankrupt” if rich countries cut back on consumption and tried to export their way to prosperity.” “‘If the rich countries are not consuming and want to grow its economy on exports, the world goes bankrupt because there would be no one to buy. Everybody would like to sell…’” The summit started amid a rather pessimistic ambiance for Obama and the South Korean President Li Myung-bak, “whose negotiators failed to agree on a long-stalled free trade agreement that it was hoped could be reached this week.” “G-20 leaders gathered Thursday evening at Seoul’s grand National Museum of Korea for the dinner that marked the official start of the two-day event.” “Outside, a few thousand protesters rallied against the G-20 and the South Korean government.” Today, Friday 12, the summit concluded with a declaration that contained 20 items and 32 paragraphs. Presumably, the world is not made up only by the 32 countries that belong to the G-20 or only by those which belong to the APEC. The 187 nations that voted in favor of lifting the blockade against Cuba, as opposed to the two that voted against and the two that abstained, make a total of 192. For 160 of them there is no forum whatsoever where they could express a single word about the imperial plundering of their resources or about their urgent economic needs. In Seoul, the United Nations does not even exist. Won’t that honorable institution say a single word about it? In these days European news agencies have been publishing really tragic news about Haiti –where, in only minutes, an earthquake killed around 250 000 persons in January this year. According to reports, the Haitian authorities have warned about the speed with which the cholera epidemic is spreading throughout the city of Gonaives, in the northern part of the island. The Major of that coastal village, Pierreleus Saint-Justin, asserts he has personally buried 31 corpses on Tuesday, and expected to bury another 15. “Others could be dying as we speak”, he added. The report states that as from November 5, 70 corpses have been buried only in the urban area of Gonaives, but there are more people who have died in rural areas nearby the city. According to the report, the situation is becoming catastrophic in Gonaives. The floods caused by hurricane ‘Tomas’ could make the situation to be even worse.” Last Wednesday, the health authorities in Haiti fixed at 643 the number of victims who had died until November 8 in the entire country as a result of the epidemic. The number of persons infected with the cholera virus during the same period amounts to 9 971. Radio stations report that the figures to be released on Friday could include more than 700 deadly casualties. The government asserts now that the disease is taking a serious toll on the population of Port-au-Prince and is threatening the capital outskirts, where more than one million people have been living in tents since the earthquake on January 12. News are reporting today a figure of 796 deaths and a total of 12 303 persons infected. More than 3 million inhabitants are now threatened; many of them live in tents and among the rubble left by the earthquake, without potable water. The main US agency reported yesterday that the first part of the US Fund for the Reconstruction of Haiti was already on the way now, more than seven months after being committed to help rebuilding the country devastated by the earthquake in January. Reportedly, in the next few days, the agency will transfer approximately 120 million dollars –around one tenth of the amount promised- to the Fund for the Reconstruction of Haiti, managed by the World Bank, as was stated by P.J.Crowley, the State Department’s speaker. An assistant of the State Department stated that the money allocated to the Fund would be used to remove the rubble, build houses, grant credits, support and educational reform program to be implemented by the Inter-American Development Bank and support the Haitian government budget. Not a single word has been said about the cholera epidemics, a disease that for years affected many countries in South America and could spread throughout the Caribbean and other parts of our hemisphere.

Fidel Castro Ruz

December 2, 2010 Posted by | African affairs, Al Quds, Bertrand Russell Tribunal, Blackseanews Agency, Coreea, Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economy, Environment, European Council on International Relations, Fidel Castro, Foreign policy, G20 Summit, History, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Information on Korea, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, International Relation, Kazahstan, Korea, Latin America, Leaders, Mass media, News, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Open Letter, Orient, Oriental Art, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Palestine, Politics, Religion, Russia, Russian Affairs, Socialism, Tourism, Travel, United Nations Global Compact, United States, War Crimes | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

UNITED STATES AND ISRAEL PLAN AN ATTACK ON IRAN DURING WORLD CUP say`s Fidel Castro

I WOULD SO MUCH LIKE TO BE WRONG by Fidel Castro

 

            When these lines are published in the Granma newspaper tomorrow, Friday, the date of July 26, when we proudly remember the honor of having resisted the imperialists’ attacks, will be felt distant, despite the fact that it is only 32 days away. Those who determine every step of humanity’s worst enemy –the US imperialism, a combination of miserable material interests, contempt and underestimation of the other peoples who inhabit this planet—have calculated everything with mathematical precision.

            In the Reflection of June 16, I wrote: “The diabolic reports slide down little by little in between matches of the Football World Cup, so that nobody takes notice.” The famous sports contest is now in its most exciting moment. For 14 days, the teams with the best players from 32 nations have been competing to advance to the stage of quarter-finals, semi-finals and then the final competition.   The sports enthusiasm grows constantly attracting hundreds of millions or perhaps even billions of people worldwide.

            But, we should be wondering how many are aware that from June 20 US warships, including the aircraft carrier Harry S. Truman, escorted by one or more nuclear submarines and other warships carrying missiles and cannons more powerful than the old battleships used during the last World War between 1939 and 1945, have been moving towards the Iranian coasts via the Suez Canal.

            This movement of the Yankee naval forces is accompanied by Israeli military ships, carrying equally sophisticated weaponry, intended to supervise any vessel involved in the import or export of commercial products required by the Iranian economy for its operations.

            Following a US proposal supported by the United Kingdom, France and Germany, the UN Security Council passed a tough resolution which was not vetoed by any of the five countries with the right to do it.  Another tougher resolution was adopted by the US Senate.   Later, a third and even tougher resolution was approved by the member countries of the European Community. All of this happened before June 20, which motivated French President Nicolas Sarkozy to make an urgent trip to Russia –according to press reports– to meet with the head of Sate of that powerful country, Dmitri Medvedev, in hope of negotiating with Iran and preventing the worst from happening.

            Now, it’s a matter of calculating when the American and Israeli naval forces will be deployed off the coasts of Iran joining there the aircraft carriers and other US military ships already on watch in the region. It is still worse that, the same as the United States, Israel –its gendarme in the Middle East—has state-of-the-art fighter planes and sophisticated nuclear weapons supplied by the United States, which have turned it into the sixth nuclear power on Earth, in terms of its fire power, and one of eight such powers that include India and Pakistan.

            The Shah of Iran was overthrown by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in 1979 without firing one shot. But then the United States imposed on that nation a war with chemical weapons whose components it supplied to Iraq along with the information required by this country’s combat units; such weapons were used against the Guardians of the Revolution. Cuba knows this because, as we have said before, our country chaired the Non- Aligned Movement at the time. We know very well the damage done to the populations. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, currently the head of State of Iran, was chief of the sixth army of the Guardians of the Revolution and chief of the Guardians Corps in the western provinces, which carried the bulk of that war.

            Today, in 2010, thirty-one years later, both the United States and Israel underestimate the one-million men that make up Iran’s Armed Forces and their fighting capacity on the ground as well as the air, sea and ground forces of the Guardians of the Revolution. These forces are compounded by 20 million men and women, ages 12 through 60, selected and systematically trained by their various armed institutions, from the 70 million people who live in that country.   The US administration worked out a plan to promote a political movement that based on capitalist consumerism would divide the Iranians and overthrow the government.

            Such hope is now harmless. It’s simply ridiculous to think that the US warships and Israeli forces combined could win the sympathies of even one Iranian citizen.   I initially thought, as I analyzed the current situation, that the conflict would start at the Korean peninsula, where the second Korean War would break out, and that another war would immediately follow; the one that the United States would impose on Iran.

            Now, we are witnessing a different turn of events: the war in Iran will immediately spark off that of Korea.

            The leadership of North Korea, which was accused of sinking the ‘Cheonan’ and which knows only too well that said ship was sunk by a mine attached to its hull by the Yankee intelligence services, will not miss a second to act as soon as Iran is attacked.    It is only fair that football fans freely enjoy the competitions of this World Cup. I simply fulfill my duty of informing our people, as I think mostly of our youths, full of life and hopes, especially our wonderful children, so that the developments do not catch them by surprise.

            It hurts to think of the dreams conceived by human beings and the amazing things they have created in barely a few thousand years.

            At a time when the most revolutionary dreams are coming true and our homeland is firmly on the path to recovery, I would so much like to be wrong! 

Fidel Castro Ruz

June 24, 2010

June 28, 2010 Posted by | Al Quds, Bertrand Russell Tribunal, Blackseanews Agency, Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economy, Environment, Fidel Castro, Foreign policy, History, Ierusalim - Al Quds, Informations, International Relation, Latin America, Leaders, Mass media, News, Open Letter, OSCE-Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Palestine, Politics, Religion, Romanian Revolution, Russia, Russian Affairs, Syria, Travel, United Nations Global Compact, United States, Universities, War Crimes, World Cup | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

CHARM , VIP`S AND GLAMOUR AT ORIENT COMES TO ROMANIA

Wednesday 16 June was celebrated at EXOTIQUE art gallery the Grand Opening of Art Exhibition: ORIENT COMES TO ROMANIA and as we can without a doubt say: Romania was falling in love with the Orient. The proofs are countless : over 250 participant at the Grand Gala , over 22 diplomatic mission`s participating and at the place of honor the ambassadors of Qatar, Japan, Palestine , Tunisia, Macedonia , Algeria etc. and the special appearance of His Royal Highness Quinn Anne of Romania.

His Royal Majesty Quinn Anne of Romania , His Excellency Ambassador of United Arab Emirates Yacub Yousif Al Hosani, Professor Anton Caragea , Mrs. Pusa Hack

The opening speech of the art exhibition was that of President Emil Constantinescu who appreciated the efforts of Mrs. Pusa Hack the owner of Exotique brand to bring this art show in Romania and to offer to the event an original oriental flavor. I was traveling the Orient as President and in this exhibition I can guarantee you that I can find all the charm, the wealth and the glamour of the Orient said the former President.

President Emil Constantinescu ( 1996-2000 ) speeking at the Opening Ceremony

Mrs. Pusa Hack, the owner of Exotique brand has emphasized the fact that for here the Orient is not a recent discovery but a life time experience and passion and a continuous pleasure. Everything that is in this art gallery and in my Exotique stores and implicit this exhibition is the result of long searches in the most hidden places, in the forgotten towns and art craft centers in a continuous search for beauty. I want Romania to love Orient as I love him and to look them from my point of view, concluded Mrs. Pusa Hack.

Mrs. Pusa Hack the Exotique Brand Owner speeking at the Opening Ceremony

His Excellency Ambassador Yacoub Yousef al Hosani from United Arab Emirates, country that generously offered his high patronage to the Oriental Art Exhibition stated that: I wish that United Arab Emirates will be better known and understood in Romania with their tradition, with the feeling of openness and generosity and the joy of sharing everything with friends feeling that is part of the United Arab Emirates way of life. For this we share everything today: knowledge, art, beauty with our Romanian friends today, we want to be known better and this exhibition is realizing exact that: Is building bridges of friendship between United Arab Emirates and Romania.

His Excellency  Ambassador Yacoub Yousif Al Hosani from United Arab Emirates opening remarks at the Grand Opening. United Arab Emirates hold the High Patronage of this year exhibition.

 The Romanian Member of Parliament Catalin Nechifor has addressed the Parliament congratulatory message for this: exceptional cultural activities that are making our country a center of culture and originality.

Catalin Nechifor , Member of Romanian Parliament adressing the congratulation message of the Parliament. 

Professor Anton Caragea, director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, co-organizer of the exhibition declared that is a moment of national pride for Romania to be able to host and organize an event of such magnitude and glamour that underlines the importance of Romania in the world.

Professor Anton Caragea , director of IRICE adressing the opening speech.

The exhibition tour had lasted two hours, time for visitors to receive the story and the information’s regarding the treasures of the art exhibition from the two of most qualified guide’s: His Excellency Ambassador Yacoub Yousif Al Hosani and Mrs. Pusa Hack. The two encouraged the visitors to travel from United Arab Emirates to India and Indonesia, a world of mystery and charm. Finally the visitors could also taste the magic of the Oriental cuisine in an exquisite food show offered by the Embassy of United Arab Emirates. The exhibition has ended in a festive atmosphere  when EXOTIQUE brand has received a new recognition of his cultural efforts being selected for the high honor of being the official partner for diplomatic activity organized by Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation and His Excellency Ambassador of United Arab Emirates,  Yacoub Yousif Al Hosani was publicly awarded for his sustained efforts in developing cultural, economic and political ties between Romania and United Arab Emirates with the ROMANIA MEDAL OF HONOR as a public demonstration of the importance that United Arab Emirates is holding in Romanian public life.

The Art Exhibition ORIENT COMES TO ROMANIA will remain open to the public interested in the values and culture of the Orient until 21 of June being considered in unanimity as the most important cultural and diplomatic event in 2010 so far.       

Among the high personalities present where:

His Excellency Ambassador of State of Qatar , Salem Al Jaber 

His Excellency Ambassador of Japan , Natsuo Amemiya

His Excellency  Ambassador of Palestine Ahmed Aqel

His Excellency Ambassador of Tunisia Mrs. Saloua BAHRI

His Excellency Ambassador of Algeria , Habib Chawki Hamraoui

Mrs. Pusa Hack , President Emil Constantinescu , H.E. Ambassador Yacub Yousif Al Hosani, Professor Anton Caragea

  

June 22, 2010 Posted by | Blackseanews Agency, Diplomacy, Eastern Europe, Ecology, Economia Romaniei, Economy, Educatie, Environment, Foreign policy, History, Informations, Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation, International Relation, Leaders, Mass media, Orient, Oriental Art, Palestine, Politics, Religion, Romanian economy, Romanian Revolution, Tourism, Travel, United Arab Emirates | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment