HATEG: THE HEARTLAND OF ROMANIAN HISTORY
HATEG: THE HEARTLAND OF ROMANIA
LANDMARKS OF VISIT BY PROFESSOR DR. ANTON CARAGEA AND AMBASSADORS GROUP
( 6-9 July 2012)
The Table of Silence –
The Table of Silence is one of the three sculptural components from Targu-Jiu, made by Constantin Brancusi along with The Gate of the Kiss (Poarta Sărutului) and The Endless Column (Coloana infinitului), which constitutes an homage to the hero soldiers fallen during the First World War. The Table of Silence (Masa Tacerii) is made in limestone and it has the following dimensions: panel diameter 2,15 meters, thick 0,43 m and the leg is 2 m in diameter and 0,45 m thick. According to the exegetes of the Brancusian art, the Table of Silence represents the table around which gather the soldiers before confronting their enemy. At the same time, the chairs stand for the time disposed in hourglasses. Some make an analogy with The Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci.
This table creates a poetic visual metaphor where visual and conceptual ideas are realized. The Table of Silence is a silent space to let people reflect, talk and express themselves. Silence is the condition necessary for listening.
The Gate of the Kiss – “Poarta Sărutului”
The Kiss Gate (Poarta Sărutului) is the second element of the Monumental Ensemble triptych in The Central Park of Târgu Jiu. Technically speaking, it is 5,13 m high, 5,45 m long and the pillars have 1,69 m width. This time, the material used was Banpotoc travertine and in order to achieve the Gate, Brancusi was helped by two stone carvers: Ion Alexandrescu from Bucharest and Golea from Dobrita. It’s significance is very simple: the Kiss Gate makes the transition to another life, and the motif on the pillars stands for the eyes looking inside.
“The Bolii Cave ”
Bolii Cave is a natural breakdown, accessible along its entire length, one of the few caves of its kind in the country. The name probably comes from the Bolia family who had from the 15th century land properties and forests in the area.
The cave begins where Jupaneasa Creek is lost in the Jurassic limestone package through a spectacular portal of 20 meters at the base and 10 meters high. The main gallery of the cave is generally of large dimensions, sometimes expanding into real spacious rooms. Some drain formations appear in the high places and on the ceiling of the gallery. At the exit of the cave the creek it’s named Galbina. In the ’60s the cave was decorated with crossing bridges over the creek but they were destroyed over time. There were installed culverts to facilitate the safe crossing of the underground hole.
The Densuş Church (also known as St Nicholas’ Church) in the village of Densuş, Hunedoara County, Romania is one of the oldest Romanian churches still standing. It was built in the 7th century with additions made in the 13th century on the site of a 2nd century Roman temple, with some materials from the Dacian Sarmizegetusa fortress. It has a stone tower above the naos. Inside the church there are 15th century mural paintings that show Jesus wearing Romanian traditional clothes.
It is considered that on the setting of the present day church, there was once a Dacian temple dedicated to Zamolxis, upon which the conquering Romans built a temple dedicated to the god Mars. After the Roman administrative withdrawal, the temple became a Christian church, and sermons were held there. Its present form dates from the beginning of the 12th century. Considering its tradition, it dates from the 4th century AD, and is considered the oldest church in Romania and South East Europe, and historically its present form dates from the 12th century.
Sarmisegetusa Regia was the capital and the most important military, religious and political center of the Dacians. Erected on top of a 1,200 m high mountain, the fortress was the core of the strategic defensive system in the Orăştie Mountains, comprising six citadels. Sarmisegetusa Regia was the capital of Dacia prior to the wars with the Roman Empire.
It should not be confused with Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the Roman capital of Dacia built by Roman Emperor Traian, which was not the Dacian capital, located some 40 km away. Sarmizegetusa Ulpia was discovered earlier, was known already in the early 1900s, and initially confused with the Dacian capital. This inevitably led to inaccuracies regarding Dacian wars and Dacians military system based solely on insufficient information. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the origin of the name Sarmisegetusa. The most important are the following:
• ‘The citadel built of the palisades on mountain peak’ from ZERMI (*gher-mi, mountain peak, top cf. *gher ‘stone’, ‘high’) and ZEGE-T (*geg(h)t)
• ‘City of warm river’ from ZARMI ‘warm’ (derived from Sanskrit gharma ‘warm’) and ZEGET ‘flow’ (derived from Sanskrit sarj, bactrien harez; sarjana, harezâna ‘flow’), the city being named after the nearby river Sargetia
• ‘The palace that illuminates the world of life’ from “ZARMYA” ‘palace’ (Sanskrit harmya ‘palace’), ZEGETH ‘world of life’ (Sanskrit jagat, jigat ‘go’, ‘mobility / world of life’) and “USA” ‘illuminaing’ (‘enlightening’, ‘burning’)
“Cetatea de Colţ” also known as The Jules Verne Castle
The castle was built in the early XIV th century by the local ruler Candea. When he later switched to Catholicism changed his name to Kendeffy. The castle is in the Suseni village, Hunedoara county road DJ 686. It inspired the novel “The Carpathian Castle” by Jules Verne. Now, it is in a state of increased degradation, being practically a ruin. To get to it, you need to climb. It takes about 30-40 minutes, but the feeling and the view from there is incredible.
Retezat National Park
Retezat National Park was established in 1935, being the oldest Romanian national park in our country. It has over 20 highest mountain peaks over 2,000m in Romania. The mountain range gurgles with streams and has more than 80 glacial lakes. Here we can find the largest glacial lake in Romania – Bucura (8.8 ha), the highest peak in the Retezat Mountain – Peleaga (2,509 m. high) and the deepest glacial lake in Romania – Zanoaga (29 m deep). Traditional grazing activities are still practiced by local people.
Botanical reserve, protected area of 4th category, with a surface of 20 ha, on the range of Nucşoara village, Sălaşu de Sus communa. Represents an artefact of ancient hydrophilical associations with the Peudedanum rochelianum endemism. Special landscape aspect due to the populations of Narcissus stellaris.
Lolaia Falls is a spectacular natural attraction located at 1050 meters altitude in the north of the park and is accessible to visitors all year round by a passage called Carnic. This includes 90% of tourists who visit the park annually. Most of them did not know that a 5 minutes deviation from their route could bring about the special beauty of this waterfall where the ecotourism potential was compromised by the manner in which the attraction was flagged and highlighted. Tourists can reach the area by train up to a station called “Ohaba de sub Piatra” or “Subcetatea”. From the station there are buses that go to Carnic. Vehicle access is allowed all year round to Carnic. From here you are only 20 minutes away on foot to the waterfall.
“Campu Mielului” (The Lamb’s Meadow)
Campu Mielului is a flat field with a magnificent view heights towards Retezatul Mic.
Visit Lainici Monastery
It was constructed during the reign of Ioan Caragea Voievod between 1812 and 1817. The exterior of the church has been divided into two separate registers by a frieze built of brick having the shape of a semicircle. The paintings, which were done in fresco, have been well preserved in the porch. The tower has the shape of a square and serves as a belfry too.
The church was renovated in 1984. There have been constructed also modern outbuildings and facilities in the eastern and southern parts of the monastic complex, whereas the old ones have just been restored. An art collection that incorporated icons, liturgical objects and old printed books is also accommodated within the monastery. In 1990 commenced the construction of a new church. Construction activities have also been initiated on two monastic outbuildings: one of them has been designed for the members of the monastic community, and the other one has been designed for the administrative offices and for the library of the monastery.
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